Statistical information Indonesia 2000Indonesia

Map of Indonesia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Indonesia in the World
Indonesia in the World

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Indonesia - Introduction 2000
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Background: The world's largest archipelago Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector effecting a transition to a popularly elected government after four decades of authoritarianism addressing charges of cronyism and corruption holding the military accountable for human rights violations and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national legislature and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor - now under UN administration - has yet to be formally established.

Indonesia - Geography 2000
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Location: Southeastern Asia archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S 120 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 1,919,440 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²
Water: 93,000 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,602 km
Border countries: (2) Malaysia 1,782 km; , Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum tin natural gas nickel timber bauxite copper fertile soils coal gold silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 7%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 62%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional floods severe droughts tsunamis earthquakes volcanoes

Note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Indonesia - People 2000
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Population: 228,437,870 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 20% (1998)

Noun: Indonesian
Adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45% Sundanese 14% Madurese 7.5% coastal Malays 7.5% other 26%

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official modified form of Malay) English Dutch local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions: Muslim 88% Protestant 5% Roman Catholic 3% Hindu 2% Buddhist 1% other 1% (1998)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 30.26% (male 35,144,702; female 33,973,879)
15-64 years: 65.11% (male 74,273,519; female 74,458,291)
65 years and over: 4.63% (male 4,641,816; female 5,945,663) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.26 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 40.91 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.27 years
Male: 65.9 years
Female: 70.75 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.58 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 52,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.8%
Male: 89.6%
Female: 78% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form: Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions
Note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor is under UN administration pending its formal independence

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949 Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected separately by the 700-member People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; election last held 20 and 21 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
Election results: Abdurrahman WAHID elected president, receiving 373 votes to 313 votes for MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected vice president, defeating Hamzah HAZ; vote totals NA
Note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature)

Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANJUNG general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Matori Abdul DJALIL chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS chairman]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador DORODJATUN Kuntjoro-Jakti
In the us chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 775-5,200
In the us fax: [1] (202) 775-5,365
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert GELBARD
From the us embassy: Jalan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10,110
From the us mailing address: Unit 8,129, Box 1, APO AP 96,520
From the us telephone: [62] (21) 3,435-9,000
From the us fax: [62] (21) 3,435-9,922
From the us consulates general: Surabaya

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Indonesia a vast polyglot nation faces severe economic problems stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes corruption weaknesses in the banking system and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. Growth of 4.8% in 2000 is not sustainable being attributable to favorable short-term factors including high world oil prices a surge in nonoil exports and increased domestic demand for consumer durables.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 21%
Industry: 35%
Services: 44% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: rice cassava (tapioca) peanuts rubber cocoa coffee palm oil copra; poultry beef pork eggs

Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles apparel and footwear; mining cement chemical fertilizers plywood; rubber; food; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 99 million (1999)
By occupation agriculture: 45%
By occupation industry: 16%
By occupation services: 39% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 20% (1998)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3.6%
Highest 10: 30.3% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $26 billion
Expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $64.7 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: oil and gas plywood textiles rubber
Partners: Japan 21% US 14% Singapore 10% South Korea 7% Netherlands 3% Australia 3% Hong Kong China Taiwan (1999 est.)

Imports: $40.4 billion (c.i.f. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals fuels foodstuffs
Partners: Japan 12% US 12% Singapore 10% Germany 6% Australia 6% South Korea 6% Taiwan China (1999 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $144 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 7,279 (January 2000) 7,855 (1999) 10,014 (1998) 2,909 (1997) 2,342 (1996) 2,249 (1995)

Indonesia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 78.674 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 80.36%
By source hydro: 14.63%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 5.01% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 73.167 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1.2 million (1998)

Telephone system: domestic service fair international service good

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 446 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1703 km (1989)



Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km Java and Madura 820 km Kalimantan 10,460 km Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Malaysia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin


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