Statistical information Jamaica 2000Jamaica

Map of Jamaica | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Jamaica in the World
Jamaica in the World

Jamaica - Introduction 2000
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Background: Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office and a more conservative government installed. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.

Jamaica - Geography 2000
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Location: Caribbean island in the Caribbean Sea south of Cuba

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N 77 30 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1022 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

Climate: tropical; hot humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow discontinuous coastal plain


Natural resources: bauxite gypsum limestone
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 350 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November)

Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

Jamaica - People 2000
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Population: 2,652,689 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 0.46% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 34.2% (1992 est.)


Ethnic groups: black 90.9% East Indian 1.3% white 0.2% Chinese 0.2% mixed 7.3% other 0.1%

Languages: English Creole

Religions: Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2% Baptist 8.8% Anglican 5.5% Seventh-Day Adventist 9% Pentecostal 7.6% Methodist 2.7% United Church 2.7% Brethren 1.1% Jehovah's Witness 1.6% Moravian 1.1%) Roman Catholic 4% other including some spiritual cults 34.7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.46% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.51 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.51 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.39 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste sewage and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14.61 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.11 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Jamaica - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon Hanover Kingston Manchester Portland Saint Andrew Saint Ann Saint Catherine Saint Elizabeth Saint James Saint Mary Saint Thomas Trelawny Westmoreland

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [P. J. PATTERSON]

International organization participation: ACP C Caricom CCC CDB ECLAC FAO G-15 G-19 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO (pending member) ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU LAES NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW UN UN Security Council (temporary) UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Jamaica: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Jamaica - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite (alumina and bauxite account for more than half of exports) and tourism. Since assuming office in 1992 Prime Minister PATTERSON has eliminated most price controls streamlined tax schedules and privatized government enterprises. Continued tight monetary and fiscal policies have helped slow inflation - although inflationary pressures are mounting - and stabilize the exchange rate but have resulted in the slowdown of economic growth (moving from 1.5% in 1992 to 0.5% in 1995). In 1996 GDP showed negative growth (-1.4%) and remained negative through 1999. Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; the weak financial condition of business in general resulting in receiverships or closures and downsizings of companies; the shift in investment portfolios to non-productive short-term high yield instruments; a pressured sometimes sliding exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt for government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy particularly the financial sector. Depressed economic conditions in 1999 led to increased civil unrest including a mounting crime rate. Jamaica's medium-term prospects will depend upon encouraging investment in the productive sectors maintaining a competitive exchange rate stabilizing the labor environment selling off reacquired firms and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: sugarcane bananas coffee citrus potatoes vegetables; poultry goats milk

Industries: tourism bauxite textiles food processing light manufactures rum cement metal paper chemical products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 1.13 million (1998)
By occupation services: 60%
By occupation agriculture: 21%
By occupation industry: 19% (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.5% (1998)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 34.2% (1992 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9.4% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: alumina bauxite sugar bananas rum
Partners: US 39.5% EU (excluding UK) 15.6% UK 12.1% Canada 11.5% (1998)

Imports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment construction materials fuel food chemicals fertilizers
Partners: US 50.9% EU (excluding UK) 9.5% Caricom countries 10.4% Latin America 6% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.8 billion (1998 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 41.139 (December 1999) 9.044 (1999) 36.550 (1998) 35.404 (1997) 37.120 (1996) 35.142 (1995)

Jamaica - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.386 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 5.939 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Jamaica - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 45,178 (1995)

Telephone system: fully automatic domestic telephone network

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Jamaica - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $30 million (FY95/96 est.)
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Jamaica - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 36 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Jamaica - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program


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