Statistical information Kazakhstan 2000Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World


Kazakhstan - Introduction 2000
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Background: During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were urged to help settle the 'New Lands' of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The influx of immigrants (mostly Russians but including some deported minority nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: resolving ethnic differences; speeding up market reforms; establishing stable relations with Russia China and other foreign powers; and developing and expanding the country's abundant energy resources.

Kazakhstan - Geography 2000
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Location: Central Asia northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N 68 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental cold winters and hot summers arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia


Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum natural gas coal iron ore manganese chrome ore nickel cobalt copper molybdenum lead zinc bauxite gold uranium
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 22,000 km² (1996 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south mud slides around Almaty

Note: landlocked

Kazakhstan - People 2000
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Population: 16,733,227 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.05% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)


Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 46% Russian 34.7% Ukrainian 4.9% German 3.1% Uzbek 2.3% Tatar 1.9% other 7.1% (1996)

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 40% Russian (official used in everyday business) 66%

Religions: Muslim 47% Russian Orthodox 44% Protestant 2% other 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.05% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.78 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.56 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.7 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59.39 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kazakhstan - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Astana

Administrative divisions: 14 oblystar (singular - oblysy) and 3 cities (qala singular - qalasy)*; Almaty Almaty* Aqmola (Astana) Aqtobe Astana* Atyrau Batys Qazaqstan (Oral) Bayqongyr* Mangghystau (Aqtau; formerly Shevchenko) Ongtustik Qazaqstan (Shymkent) Pavlodar Qaraghandy Qostanay Qyzylorda Shyghys Qazaqstan (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk) Soltustik Qazaqstan (Petropavl) Zhambyl (Taraz; formerly Dzhambul)

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Day of the Republic 25 October (1990) (date on which Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty)

Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are popularly elected two from each oblast and Almaty to serve six-year terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; the addition of 10 'Party List' seats brings the total to 77; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms); note - with the oblasts being reduced to 14 the Senate will eventually be reduced to 37; a number of Senate seats come up for reelection every two years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Romin MADENOV]; Alash [Soverkazhy AKATAYEV]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK Murat AUEZOV and Galym ABILSIITOV cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV first secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN first secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces [leader NA]; Labor and Workers Movement [Madel ISMAILOV chairman]; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan [Sergei TERESCHENKO chairman]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan or NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV chairman]; People's Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV]; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]

International organization participation: AsDB CCC CIS EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO IDA IDB IFAD IFC ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NAM (observer) OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a 'national ornamentation' in gold

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kazakhstan - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Kazakhstan the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory possesses enormous untapped fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment tractors agricultural machinery and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991 with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international oil prices which combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest pulled the economy out of recession.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.7% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: grain (mostly spring wheat) cotton; wool livestock

Industries: oil coal iron ore manganese chromite lead zinc copper titanium bauxite gold silver phosphates sulfur iron and steel nonferrous metal tractors and other agricultural machinery electric motors construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 8.8 million (1997)
By occupation: industry 27% agriculture and forestry 23% other 50% (1996)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.2 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: oil 40% ferrous and nonferrous metals machinery chemicals grain wool meat coal
Partners: EU 32% China 29% Russia 29% (1998)

Imports: $4.8 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and parts industrial materials oil and gas vehicles
Partners: Russia 39% Ukraine US Uzbekistan Turkey UK Germany South Korea (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7.9 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 139.02 (January 2000) 119.52 (1999) 78.30 (1998) 75.44 (1997) 67.30 (1996) 60.95 (1995)

Kazakhstan - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 49.299 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 48.822 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 400 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 3.374 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kazakhstan - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4,600 (1995)

Telephone system: service is poor; equipment antiquated

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kazakhstan - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $322 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 10 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)



Waterways: 3,900 km on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya) and Ertis (Irtysh)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan Iran Kazakhstan Russia and Turkmenistan; Russia leases approximately 6,000 km² of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone); limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia North America and Western Europe from Southwest Asia


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