Statistical information Kenya 2000Kenya

Map of Kenya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Kenya in the World
Kenya in the World


Kenya - Introduction 2000
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Background: Revered president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978 when current President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997 which were marred by violence and fraud but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. The country faces a period of political uncertainty because MOI is constitutionally required to step down at the next elections that have to be held by early 2003.

Kenya - Geography 2000
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Location: Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N 38 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 582,650 km²
Land: 569,250 km²
Water: 13,400 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries
Total: 3,446 km
Border countries: (5) Ethiopia 830 km; , Somalia 682 km; , Sudan 232 km; , Tanzania 769 km; , Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold limestone soda ash salt barites rubies fluorspar garnets wildlife hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 37%
Forests and woodland: 30%
Other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring drought in northern and eastern regions; flooding during rainy seasons

Note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Kenya - People 2000
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 42% (1992 est.)

Noun: Kenyan
Adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22% Luhya 14% Luo 13% Kalenjin 12% Kamba 11% Kisii 6% Meru 6% other African 15% non-African (Asian European and Arab) 1%

Languages: English (official) Kiswahili (official) numerous indigenous languages

Note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 41.95% (male 6,524,776; female 6,381,192)
15-64 years: 55.26% (male 8,529,842; female 8,471,609)
65 years and over: 2.79% (male 376,151; female 482,346) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.5 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.35 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate
Note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 1999 Kenya was host to 223,700 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 141,000 and Sudan 64,250

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 1.01 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 67.99 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 47.49 years
Male: 46.57 years
Female: 48.44 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 13.95% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 2.1 million (1999 est.)
Deaths: 180,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 78.1%
Male: 86.3%
Female: 70% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kenya - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
Conventional short form: Kenya
Former: British East Africa

Government type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central Coast Eastern Nairobi Area* North Eastern Nyanza Rift Valley Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1983 1986 1988 1991 1992 and 1997

Legal system: based on English common law tribal law and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of the National Assembly for a five-year term; in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president appointed by the president
Election results: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI reelected; percent of vote - Daniel T. arap MOI (KANU) 40.6%, Mwai KIBAKI (DP) 31.5%, Raila ODINGA (NDP) 11.1%, Michael WAMALWA (FORD-K) 8.4%, Charity NGILU (SDP) 7.8%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - KANU 107, FORD-A 1, FORD-K 17, FORD-People 3, DP 39, NDP 21, SDP 15, SAFINA 5, smaller parties 2; seats appointed by the president - KANU 6, FORD-K 1, DP 2, SDP 1, NDP 1, SAFINA 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai KIBAKI]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-A [Martin SHIKUKU secretary general]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Michael Kijana WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI] - the governing party; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA president]; SAFINA [Farah MAALIM chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. Apollo NJONJO secretary general and Justus NYANG'AYA chairman]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Yusuf Abdulraham NZIBO
In the us chancery: 2,249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 387-6,101
In the us fax: [1] (202) 462-3,829
In the us consulates general: offices in Los Angeles and New York are closed; mission to the UN remains open
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
From the us embassy: US Embassy, Mombasa Road, Nairobi
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 30,137, Box 21A, Unit 64,100, APO AE 9,831
From the us telephone: [254] (2) 537-800
From the us fax: [254] (2) 537-810

Flag descriptionflag of Kenya: three equal horizontal bands of black (top) red and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kenya - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Kenya is well placed to serve as an engine of growth in East Africa but its economy has been stagnating because of poor management and uneven commitment to reform. In 1993 the government of Kenya implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform that included the removal of import licensing price controls and foreign exchange controls. With the support of the World Bank IMF and other donors the reforms led to a brief turnaround in economic performance following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s. Kenya's real GDP grew 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996 and inflation remained under control. Growth slowed after 1997 averaging only 1.5% in 1997-2000. In 1997 political violence damaged the tourist industry and Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program lapsed due to the government's failure to maintain reform or address public sector corruption. Severe drought in 1999 and 2000 caused water and energy rationing and reduced agricultural sector productivity. A new economic team was put in place in 1999 to revitalize the reform effort strengthen the civil service and curb corruption. The IMF and World Bank renewed their support to Kenya in mid-2000 but a number of setbacks to the economic reform program in late 2000 have renewed donor and private sector concern about the government's commitment to sound governance. Long-term barriers to development include electricity shortages inefficient government dominance of key sectors endemic corruption and high population growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.4% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 25%
Industry: 13%
Services: 62% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee tea corn wheat sugarcane fruit vegetables; dairy products beef pork poultry eggs

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic furniture batteries textiles soap cigarettes flour) agricultural products processing; oil refining cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.2 million (1998 est.)
By occupation: agriculture 75%-80%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 42% (1992 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.8%
Highest 10: 34.9% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $2.91 billion
Expenditures: $2.97 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 7% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: tea coffee horticultural products petroleum products fish cement
Partners: Uganda 18% UK 15% Tanzania 12% Pakistan 8% (1999)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment petroleum products iron and steel
Partners: UK 12% UAE 8% Japan 8% US 7% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $6.2 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 73.943 (December 1999) 70.326 (1999) 60.367 (1998) 58.732 (1997) 57.115 (1996) 51.430 (1995)

Kenya - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4.225 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 31%
By source hydro: 67%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 2% (1999 est.)

Electricity consumption: 4.075 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 146 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kenya - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 6,000 (1999)

Telephone system: unreliable; little attempt to modernize

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kenya - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $197 million (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kenya - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 230 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km



Waterways: part of the Lake Victoria system is within the boundaries of Kenya

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kenya - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small wild plots of marijuana and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and sometimes North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

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