Statistical information Lebanon 2000Lebanon

Map of Lebanon | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Lebanon in the World
Lebanon in the World


Lebanon - Introduction 2000
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Background: Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since 1991 and the end of the devastating 16-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions in the government. Since the end of the war the Lebanese have conducted several successful elections most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah the radical Shi'a party retains its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia the Army of South Lebanon (ASL) along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous to its border. Syria maintains about 25,000 troops in Lebanon based mainly in Beirut North Lebanon and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League during Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies its continued military presence in Lebanon by citing the continued weakness of the LAF Beirut's requests and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if Accord.

Lebanon - Geography 2000
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Location: Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N 35 50 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool wet winters with hot dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains


Natural resources: limestone iron ore salt water-surplus state in a water-deficit region arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 860 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: dust storms sandstorms

Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate protect and develop numerous factional groups based on religion clan and ethnicity

Lebanon - People 2000
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Population: 3,578,036 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.38% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)


Ethnic groups: Arab 95% Armenian 4% other 1%

Languages: Arabic (official) French English Armenian widely understood

Religions: Muslim 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Shi'a Sunni Druze Isma'ilite Alawite or Nusayri) Christian 30% (11 legally recognized Christian groups - 4 Orthodox Christian 6 Catholic 1 Protestant) Jewish NEGL%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.26 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.42 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 29.3 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Lebanon - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (mohafazat singular - mohafazah); Beyrouth Ech Chimal Ej Jnoub El Bekaa Jabal Loubnane

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 23 May 1926 amended a number of times

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law canon law Napoleonic code and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord) rules on constitutionality of laws; Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)

Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious clan and economic considerations


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Lebanon: three horizontal bands of red (top) white (double width) and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Lebanon - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure cut national output by half and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace has enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut begin collecting taxes and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers with family remittances banking services manufactured and farm exports and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange. Lebanon's economy has made impressive gains since the launch of 'Horizon 2000' the government's $20 billion reconstruction program in 1993. Real GDP grew 8% in 1994 and 7% in 1995 before Israel's Operation Grapes of Wrath in April 1996 stunted economic activity. Real GDP grew at an average annual rate of less than 3% per year for 1997 and 1998 and only 1% in 1999. During 1992-98 annual inflation fell from more than 100% to 5% and foreign exchange reserves jumped to more than $6 billion from $1.4 billion. Burgeoning capital inflows have generated foreign payments surpluses and the Lebanese pound has remained relatively stable. Progress also has been made in rebuilding Lebanon's war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. Solidere a $2-billion firm is managing the reconstruction of Beirut's central business district; the stock market reopened in January 1996; and international banks and insurance companies are returning. The government nonetheless faces serious challenges in the economic arena. It has had to fund reconstruction by tapping foreign exchange reserves and boosting borrowing. Reducing the government budget deficit is a major goal of the LAHUD government. The stalled peace process and ongoing violence in southern Lebanon could lead to wider hostilities that would disrupt vital capital inflows. Furthermore the gap between rich and poor has widened in the 1990's resulting in grassroots dissatisfaction over the skewed distribution of the reconstruction's benefits and leading the government to shift its focus from rebuilding infrastructure to improving living conditions.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: citrus grapes tomatoes apples vegetables potatoes olives tobacco; sheep goats

Industries: banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles; mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil refining; metal fabricating

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 1.3 million (1999 est.)
By occupation services: 62%
By occupation industry: 31%
By occupation agriculture: 7% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18% (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 4.5% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $866 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs and tobacco textiles chemicals metal and metal products electrical equipment and products jewelry paper and paper products
Partners: Saudi Arabia 12% UAE 10% France 9% Syria 7% US 7% Kuwait 4% Jordan Turkey (1998)

Imports: $5.7 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs machinery and transport equipment consumer goods chemicals textiles metals fuels agricultural foods
Partners: Italy 12% France 10% US 9% Germany 9% Switzerland 6% Japan UK Syria (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $8.8 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds per US$1 - 1507.5 (January 2000) 1507.8 (1999) 1516.1 (1998) 1539.5 (1997) 1571.4 (1996) 1621.4 (1995)

Lebanon - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.7 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 9.629 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 608 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Lebanon - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 120,000 (1995)

Telephone system: telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Lebanon - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $500 million (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 4% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Lebanon - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 9 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Lebanon - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern central and eastern Lebanon since October 1976

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: inconsequential producer of hashish; some heroin processing mostly in the Bekaa valley; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication campaign started in the early 1990s has practically eliminated the opium and cannabis crops


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