Statistical information Malawi 2000Malawi

Map of Malawi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Malawi in the World
Malawi in the World

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Malawi - Introduction 2000
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Background: Established in 1891 the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution which took full effect the following year. National multiparty elections were held again in 1999.

Malawi - Geography 2000
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Location: Southern Africa east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S 34 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 118,480 km²
Land: 94,080 km²
Water: 24,400 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries
Total: 2,881 km
Border countries: (3) Mozambique 1,569 km; , Tanzania 475 km; , Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains rounded hills some mountains

Extremes lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
Extremes highest point: Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone arable land: hydropower unexploited deposits of uranium coal and bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 39%
Other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Malawi - People 2000
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 54% (FY90/91 est.)

Noun: Malawian
Adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa Nyanja Tumbuko Yao Lomwe Sena Tonga Ngoni Ngonde Asian European

Languages: English (official) Chichewa (official) other languages important regionally

Religions: Protestant 55% Roman Catholic 20% Muslim 20% indigenous beliefs

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 44.43% (male 2,348,940; female 2,337,290)
15-64 years: 52.78% (male 2,741,622; female 2,825,966)
65 years and over: 2.79% (male 119,283; female 175,149) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 37.8 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 22.81 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff sewage industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1 male/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 121.12 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 37.08 years
Male: 36.61 years
Female: 37.55 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 15.96% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 800,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 70,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 58%
Male: 72.8%
Female: 43.4% (1999 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Malawi - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
Conventional short form: Malawi
Former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland

Government type: multiparty democracy

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre Chikwawa Chiradzulu Chitipa Dedza Dowa Karonga Kasungu Lilongwe Machinga (Kasupe) Mangochi Mchinji Mulanje Mwanza Mzimba Ntcheu Nkhata Bay Nkhotakota Nsanje Ntchisi Rumphi Salima Thyolo Zomba; note - there may be three new districts named Balaka Likoma and Phalombe

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964)

Constitution: 18 May 1994

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: 36-member Cabinet named by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president; percent of vote - Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - UDF 48%, MCP 34%, AFORD 15%, others 3%; seats by party - UDF 94, MCP 66, AFORD 29, others 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA president]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA president John TEMBO vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA president]; National Independence Party; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eston KAKHOME president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] - governing party


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO
In the us chancery: 2,408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Roger A. MEECE
From the us embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 30,016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
From the us telephone: [265] 773 166
From the us fax: [265] 770 471

Flag descriptionflag of Malawi: three equal horizontal bands of black (top) red and green with a radiant rising red sun centered in the black band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Malawi - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF the World Bank and individual donor nations. In late 2000 Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. The government faces strong challenges e.g. to fully develop a market economy to improve educational facilities to face up to environmental problems and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 37%
Industry: 29%
Services: 34% (1998 est.)

Agriculture products: tobacco sugarcane cotton tea corn potatoes cassava (tapioca) sorghum pulses; cattle goats

Industries: tobacco tea sugar sawmill products cement consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 3.5 million
By occupation: agriculture 86% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 54% (FY90/91 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $490 million
Expenditures: $523 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 29.5% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $416 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: tobacco tea sugar cotton coffee peanuts wood products
Partners: South Africa 16% Germany 16% US 15% Netherlands 7% Japan (1999)

Imports: $435 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: food petroleum products semimanufactures consumer goods transportation equipment
Partners: South Africa 43% Zimbabwe 14% UK 5% Germany 5% Zambia Japan US (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.9 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas per US dollar - 80.0946 (December 2000) 59.5438 (2000) 44.0881 (1999) 31.0727 (1998) 16.4442 (1997) 15.3085 (1996)

Malawi - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.025 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 2.44%
By source hydro: 97.56%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 950 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Malawi - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 7,000 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mw

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Malawi - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $9.5 million (FY00/01)
Percent of gdp: 0.76% (FY00/01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Malawi - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 44 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 6
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 38
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 23 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 6
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 38
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 23 (2000 est.)



Total: 789 km
Narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge


Note: on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Shire Riverall

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Malawi - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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