Statistical information Marshall Islands 2000Marshall%20Islands

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Marshall Islands in the World
Marshall Islands in the World


Marshall Islands - Introduction 2000
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Background: After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the islands between 1947 and 1962.

Marshall Islands - Geography 2000
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Location: Oceania group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N 168 00 E

Map referenceOceania

Total: 181.3 km²
Land: 181.3 km²
Water: 0 km²
Note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein
Comparative: about the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits marine products deep seabed minerals
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 60%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein the famous World War II battleground is now used as a US missile test range

Marshall Islands - People 2000
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Population: 70,822 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 3.88% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language) two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family Japanese

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 49.29% (male 17,808; female 17,101)
15-64 years: 48.61% (male 17,573; female 16,853)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 707; female 780) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.88% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.07 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.23 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male/female
Total population: 1.04 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 39.82 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.84 years
Male: 64.04 years
Female: 67.73 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 93%
Male: 100%
Female: 88% (1980 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Marshall Islands - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
Conventional short form: Marshall Islands
Former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: 33 municipalities; Ailinginae Ailinglaplap Ailuk Arno Aur Bikar Bikini Bokak Ebon Enewetak Erikub Jabat Jaluit Jemo Kili Kwajalein Lae Lib Likiep Majuro Maloelap Mejit Mili Namorik Namu Rongelap Rongrik Toke Ujae Ujelang Utirik Wotho Wotje

Dependent areas

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws acts of the legislature municipal common and customary laws

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)
Election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters formal platforms or party structures; the following two 'groupings' have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]

International organization participation: ACP AsDB ESCAP FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO IDA IFC IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol ITU OPCW Sparteca SPC SPF UN UNCTAD UNESCO WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM
In the us chancery: 2,433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-5,414
In the us fax: [1] (202) 232-3,236
In the us consulates general: Honolulu
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED
From the us embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96,960-1379
From the us telephone: [692] 247-4,011
From the us fax: [692] 247-4,012

Flag descriptionflag of Marshall%20Islands: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Marshall Islands - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms and the most important commercial crops are coconuts tomatoes melons and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts fish processing and copra. The tourist industry now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association the US provides roughly $65 million in annual aid. Negotiations were underway in 1999 for an extended agreement. Government downsizing drought a drop in construction and the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties caused GDP to fall in 1996-98.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15%
Industry: 13%
Services: 72% (1995)

Agriculture products: coconuts tomatoes melons cacao taro breadfruit fruits; pigs chickens

Industries: copra fish tourism craft items from shell wood and pearls offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $80.1 million
Expenditures: $77.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5 million (FY95/96 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 5% (1997)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $28 million (f.o.b. 1997 est.)
Commodities: fish coconut oil trochus shells
Partners: US Japan Australia

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b. 1997 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs machinery and equipment fuels beverages and tobacco
Partners: US Japan Australia NZ Guam Singapore

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $125 million (FY96/97 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Marshall Islands - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production
By source fossil fuel: NA%
By source hydro: NA%
By source nuclear: NA%
By source other: NA%

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Marshall Islands - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 365 (1996)

Telephone system
General assessment: telex services
Domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mh

Internet users: 500 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Marshall Islands - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Marshall Islands - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 12
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 9
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 12
914 to 1523 m: 9
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Railways: 0 km


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,768,406 GRT/16,242,699 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 63, cargo 9, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 29, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 87, vehicle carrier 1
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Germany 1, Japan 1, US 6 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Marshall Islands - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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