Statistical information Moldova 2000Moldova

Map of Moldova | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Moldova in the World

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Moldova - Introduction 2000
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.


Moldova - Geography 2000
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Location: Eastern Europe northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N 29 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Area
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation

Natural resources: lignite phosphorites gypsum arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 3,110 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Geography
Note: landlocked


Moldova - People 2000
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Population: 4,430,654 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5% Ukrainian 13.8% Russian 13% Gagauz 3.5% Jewish 1.5% Bulgarian 2% other 1.7% (1989 est.)

Languages: Moldovan (official virtually the same as the Romanian language) Russian Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5% Jewish 1.5% Baptist (only about 1000 members) (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.58 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.31 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals including banned pesticides such as DDT has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 43.32 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Moldova - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: 10 juletule (singular - juletul) 1 municipality* 1 autonomous territorial unit**; Balti Cahul Chisinau Chisinau* Dubasari Edinet Gagauzia** Lapusna Orhei Soroca Tighina Ungheni

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs as well as independent candidates compete in popular elections to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court is the sole authority of constitutional judicature

Political parties and leaders: Bloc for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova or PMDP [Dumitru DIACOV]; Christian Democratic Popular Front or FPCD [Iurie ROSCA chairman]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN first chairman]; Democratic Convention of Moldova or CDM [Mircea SNEGUR chairman]; Party of Democratic Forces or PFD [Valeriu MATEI chairman]

International organization participation: ACCT BIS BSEC CCC CE CEI CIS EAPC EBRD ECE FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU IDA IFAD IFC ILO IMF Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side) yellow and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head star rose and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Moldova - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result the economy depends heavily on agriculture featuring fruits vegetables wine and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil coal and natural gas largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort Moldova introduced a stable convertible currency freed all prices stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises backed steady land privatization removed export controls and freed interest rates. Yet these efforts could not offset the impact of political and economic difficulties both internal and regional. In 1998 the economic troubles of Russia by far Moldova's leading trade partner were a major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP; the value of the currency in relation to the dollar fell by half. In 1999 GDP fell again by 4.4% the fifth drop in the past six years; exports were down and energy supplies continued erratic. GDP is expected to remain at about the same level in 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -4.4% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: vegetables fruits wine grain sugar beets sunflower seed tobacco; beef milk

Industries: food processing agricultural machinery foundry equipment refrigerators and freezers washing machines hosiery sugar vegetable oil shoes textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1998)
By occupation agriculture: 40.2%
By occupation industry: 14.3%
By occupation other: 45.5% (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (September 1998)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 38% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $470 million (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: foodstuffs wine and tobacco 66%; textiles and footwear machinery (1998)
Partners: Russia 53% Romania 10% Ukraine 8% Germany 5% Belarus 4% (1998)

Imports: $560 million (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: mineral products and fuel 31% machinery and equipment chemicals textiles (1998)
Partners: Russia 22% Ukraine 16% Romania 12% Belarus 9% Germany 5% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.3 billion (December 1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei (MLD) per US$1 (end of year) - 12.1408 (January 2000) 10.5158 (1999) 5.3707 (1998) 4.6236 (1997) 4.6045 (1996) 4.4958 (1995)


Moldova - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.661 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 7.065 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 1.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Moldova - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 14 (1995)

Telephone system: inadequate outmoded poor service outside Chisinau some effort to modernize is under way

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Moldova - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Moldova - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Moldova - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: separatist Transnistria region comprising the area between the Nistru (Dniester) River and Ukraine has its own de facto government dominated by Moldovan Slavs

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia Western Europe and possibly the US


Volotea Air


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