Statistical information Mongolia 2000Mongolia

Map of Mongolia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Mongolia in the World
Mongolia in the World

Iberostar Hotels

Mongolia - Introduction 2000
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Background: Long a province of China Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996 the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election and has attempted to establish a number of reforms to modernize the economy. However many former communists retain key posts and implementation has been difficult.

Mongolia - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern Asia between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N 105 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast


Natural resources: oil coal copper molybdenum tungsten phosphates tin nickel zinc wolfram fluorspar gold
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Mongolia - People 2000
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Population: 2,650,952 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.54% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)


Ethnic groups: Mongol 90% Kazakh 4% other 6%

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90% Turkic Russian

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist Muslim 4%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.54% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.53 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation overgrazing the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 41.22 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mongolia - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud singular - hot); Arhangay Bayanhongor Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan Darhan* Dornod Dornogovi Dundgovi Dzavhan Erdenet* Govi-Altay Hentiy Hovd Hovsgol Omnogovi Ovorhangay Selenge Suhbaatar Tov Ulaanbaatar* Uvs

Dependent areas

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian Chinese Turkish and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary and presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the State Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Union Coalition or DUC (includes the MNDP and the MSDP); Independence Party [leader NA]; Mongolian Conservative Party or MCP [JARGALSAIHAN]; Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP [B. ERDENEBAT chairman]; Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP [BYAMBASUREN chairman]; Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [R. AMARJARGAL chairman; B. DELGERMAA general secretary]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [N. ENKHBAYAR chairman; L. ENEBISH general secretary]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]; Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP [Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ chairman; N. ALTANKHUYAG general secretary]; Mongolian United Heritage Party or UHP [B. JAMTSAI] (includes the United Party of Herdsman and Farmers Independence Party Traditional United Conservative Party and Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party); Mongolian United Private Property Owners Party [leader NA]); United Party of Herdsman and Farmers [leader NA]; Traditional United Conservative Party [leader NA]; Workers' Party [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mongolia: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) blue and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ('soyombo' - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire sun moon earth water and the yin-yang symbol)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mongolia - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper coal molybdenum tin tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance at its height one-third of GDP disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession which was prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) government has embraced free-market economics easing price controls liberalizing domestic and international trade and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs have been undertaken as well as fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company a leading cashmere company and banks. Reform has been held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. Public revenues and exports collapsed in 1998 and 1999 due to the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis. In August and September 1999 the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wheat barley potatoes forage crops; sheep goats cattle camels horses

Industries: construction materials mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1998)

Labor force: 1.256 million (1998)
By occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1998)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9.5% (1998)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $316.8 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: copper livestock animal products cashmere wool hides fluorspar other nonferrous metals
Partners: China 30.1% Switzerland 21.5% Russia 12.1% South Korea 9.7% US 8.1% (1998)

Imports: $472.4 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: machinery and equipment fuels food products industrial consumer goods chemicals building materials sugar tea
Partners: Russia 30.6% China 13.3% Japan 11.7% South Korea 7.5% US 6.9% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $715 million (1998 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 1070.39 (December 1999) 1072.37 (1999) 840.83 (1998) 789.99 (1997) 548.40 (1996) 448.61 (1995)

Mongolia - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.66 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 2.816 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 342 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mongolia - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mongolia - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $20 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 2% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mongolia - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 400 km of principal routes (1999)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Mongolia - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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