Statistical information Panama 2000Panama

Map of Panama | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Panama in the World
Panama in the World

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Panama - Introduction 2000
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Background: With US backing Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977 an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening years. With US help dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal the area supporting the Canal and remaining US military bases were turned over to Panama on 31 December 1999.


Panama - Geography 2000
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Location: Middle America bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N 80 00 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical maritime; hot humid cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January) short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep rugged mountains and dissected upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation

Natural resources: copper mahogany forests shrimp hydropower
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 320 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean


Panama - People 2000
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Population: 2,808,268 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.34% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70% Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14% white 10% Amerindian 6%

Languages: Spanish (official) English 14%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85% Protestant 15%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.34% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.53 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.95 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.16 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20.8 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Panama - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias singular - provincia) and 2 territories* (comarca); Bocas del Toro Chiriqui Cocle Colon Darien Herrera Los Santos Ngobe-Bugle* Panama San Blas* and Veraguas

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983 and in 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia nine judges appointed for 10-year terms; five superior courts; three courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders: Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ruben AROSEMENA]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC [Serguei DE LA ROSA]; Democratic Change [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Martin TORRIJOS]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Dr. Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta Oscar UCROS Raul ARANGO]; National Renovation Movement or MORENA [Joaquin Jose VALLARINO]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Arturo VALLARINO]; Solidarity Party or PS [Ricardo FABREGA]

International organization participation: CAN (associate) CCC ECLAC FAO G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU LAES LAIA (observer) NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Panama: divided into four equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Panama - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Because of its key geographic location Panama's economy is service-based heavily weighted toward banking commerce and tourism. The hand-over of the canal and military installations by the US has given rise to new construction projects. The MOSCOSO administration inherited an economy that is much more structurally sound and liberalized than the one inherited by its predecessor. Even though export demand is likely to remain slack in some key markets - especially the Andean countries - GDP growth in 2000 probably will be 3% to 4%. Key reform initiatives from the previous administration - including the privatization of public utilities - remain uncompleted. Although President MOSCOSO is unlikely to overturn any previous reforms her populist leanings make it unlikely any new initiatives will be undertaken in the near future. Indeed the government has failed to formulate a comprehensive economic policy framework and the only concrete step it has taken by yearend 1999 has been a hike in agricultural tariffs.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.4% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: bananas rice corn coffee sugarcane vegetables; livestock; shrimp

Industries: construction petroleum refining brewing cement and other construction materials sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.044 million (1997 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 18%
By occupation industry: 18%
By occupation services: 64% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1997 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: bananas shrimp sugar coffee
Partners: US 40% Sweden Costa Rica Spain Benelux Honduras (1998)

Imports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: capital goods crude oil foodstuffs consumer goods chemicals
Partners: US 40% Central America and Caribbean Japan (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)


Panama - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4.523 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 4.329 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 13 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 136 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Panama - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic and international facilities well developed

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Panama - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $132 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 1.6% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Panama - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 105 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Panama - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug-money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving yet Panama has failed to prosecute anyone for money laundering - official corruption remains a major problem


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