Statistical information Peru 2000Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Peru in the World
Peru in the World


Peru - Introduction 2000
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.

Peru - Geography 2000
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Location: Western South America bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S 76 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1.28 million km²
Water: 5,220 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 5,536 km
Border countries: (4) Bolivia 900 km; , Brazil 1,560 km; , Chile 160 km; , Colombia 1,496 km; (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa) high and rugged Andes in center (sierra) eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper silver gold petroleum timber fish iron ore coal phosphate potash hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 66%
Other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes tsunamis flooding landslides mild volcanic activity

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca world's highest navigable lake with Bolivia

Peru - People 2000
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Population: 27,483,864 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.7% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 49% (1994 est.)

Noun: Peruvian
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45% mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37% white 15% black Japanese Chinese and other 3%

Languages: Spanish (official) Quechua (official) Aymara

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.41% (male 4,803,464; female 4,654,890)
15-64 years: 60.8% (male 8,408,210; female 8,302,943)
65 years and over: 4.79% (male 603,309; female 711,048) (2000 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.7% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.9 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.08 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male/female
Total population: 1.01 male/female (2000 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 39.39 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.3 years
Male: 67.9 years
Female: 72.81 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.96 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.35% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 48,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 4,100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.7%
Male: 94.5%
Female: 83% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Peru - Government 2000
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru

Government type: constitutional republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions
Note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2000) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2000)
Head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2000) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2000)
Note: Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2000) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential election held 8 April 2000 with runoff election 3 June 2000); next to be held NA 2006
Election results: President TOLEDO elected in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held 8 April 2000)
Note: many congressmen defected to and then from former President FUJIMORI's coalition in 2000
Election results: percent of vote by party - Peru 2000 42.16%, Peru Possible 23.34%, FIM 7.56%, Somos Peru 7.2%, APRA 5.5%, others 14.24%; seats by party - Peru 2000 52, Peru Possible 29, FIM 9, others 30

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)

Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Andean Rebirth [Ciro GALVEZ Herreria]; Avancemos [leader NA]; Democratic Cause [Jorge SANTISTEVAN]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Solidarity or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; National Unity [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru 2000 [leader NA]; Peru Posible or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Maniquez]; Popular Action or AP [leader NA]; Popular Agrarian Front of Peru or Frepap [leader NA]; Popular Solution [Carlos BOLONA Behr]; Project Country [Mario Antonio ARRUNATEGUI]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [leader NA]; Vamos Vecinos or VV [Absalon VASQUEZ]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonso RIVERO Monsalve
In the us chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 833-9,860 through 9,869
In the us fax: [1] (202) 659-8,124
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John HAMILTON
From the us embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34,031-5,000
From the us telephone: [51] (1) 434-3,000
From the us fax: [51] (1) 434-3,037

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) white and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama cinchona tree (the source of quinine) and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Peru - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining electricity and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the FUJIMORI government and the IMF and World Bank growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998 El Nino's impact on agriculture the financial crisis in Asia and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited economic growth in 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 15%
Industry: 42%
Services: 43% (1999)

Agriculture products: coffee cotton sugarcane rice wheat potatoes plantains coca; poultry beef dairy products wool; fish

Industries: mining of metals petroleum fishing textiles clothing food processing cement auto assembly steel shipbuilding metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 7.6 million (1996 est.)
By occupation government and other services: 44%
By occupation agriculture: 37%
By occupation industry: 19% (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.7%; extensive underemployment (1997)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 49% (1994 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.9%
Highest 10: 34.3% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $8.5 billion
Expenditures: $9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.7% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: fish and fish products copper zinc gold crude petroleum and byproducts lead coffee sugar cotton
Partners: US 29% EU 25% Andean Community 6% Japan 4% Mercosur 3% (1999)

Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery transport equipment foodstuffs petroleum iron and steel chemicals pharmaceuticals
Partners: US 32% EU 21% Andean Community 6% Mercosur 8% Japan 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $31 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.5230 (January 2000) 3.4900 (2000) 3.383 (1999) 2.930 (1998) 2.664 (1997) 2.453 (1996)

Peru - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 18.886 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 23.04%
By source hydro: 76.43%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0.53% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 17.565 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Peru - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 504,995 (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: adequate for most requirements
Domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .pe

Internet users: 400,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Peru - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1 billion (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Peru - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 233 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 46
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 18
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 187
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 25
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 65
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 95 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 46
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 18
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 187
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 25
914 to 1523 m: 65
Under 914 m: 95 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Total: 1,988 km
Standard gauge: 1,608 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 380 km 0.914-m gauge


Note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine
Total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,623 GRT/61,769 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Peru - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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