Statistical information Poland 2000Poland

Map of Poland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Poland in the World
Poland in the World

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Poland - Introduction 2000
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Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite country following the war but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of an independent trade union 'Solidarity' that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. Complete freedom came with the implosion of the USSR in 1991. A 'shock therapy' program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe boosting hopes for early acceptance to the EU. Poland joined the NATO alliance in 1999.


Poland - Geography 2000
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Location: Central Europe east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N 20 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate with cold cloudy moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation

Natural resources: coal sulfur copper natural gas silver lead salt arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 1000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: historically an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain


Poland - People 2000
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Population: 38,646,023 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: -0.04% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 23.8% (1993 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6% German 1.3% Ukrainian 0.6% Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Languages: Polish

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing) Eastern Orthodox Protestant and other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.13 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.99 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem as is disposal of hazardous wastes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 9.61 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Poland - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie Kujawsko-Pomorskie Lodzkie Lubelskie Lubuskie Malopolskie Mazowieckie Opolskie Podkarpackie Podlaskie Pomorskie Slaskie Swietokrzyskie Warminsko-Mazurskie Wielkopolskie Zachodniopomorskie

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day 3 May (1791); Independence Day November 11 (1918)

Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly on 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts although under the new constitution the Constitutional Tribunal ruling will become final as of October 1999; court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice in Strasbourg

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe consists of the Sejm (460 seats; members are elected under a complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) and the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members are elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period; Constitutional Tribunal judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Center Alliance Party or PC [Antoni TOKARCZUK]; Christian National Union or ZCHN [Marian PILKA]; Confederation for an Independent Poland or KPN [Leszek MOCZULSKI]; Confederation for an Independent Poland-Patriotic Camp or KPN-OP (KPN-Fatherland or KPN-O is a small group within the KPN-OP) [Adam SLOMKA]; Conservative Peasant Party or SKL [Miroslaw STYCZEN]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of Poland) [Leszek MILLER]; Freedom Union or UW [Leszek BALCEROWICZ]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Labor Party or PP [leader NA]; Labor Union or UP [Marek POL]; Movement of Polish Working People or RLP [leader NA]; Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland or ROP [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Polish Christian Democrats or PPChD [Antoni TOKARCZUK]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Jaroslaw KALINOWSKI]; Polish Socialist Party or PPS [Piotr IKONOWICZ]; Realpolitik Union or UPR [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS (includes RS-AWS and Solidarity) [Marek KOTLARSKI]; Social Movement-Solidarity Electoral Action or RS-AWS [Jerzy BUZEK]

International organization participation: Australia Group BIS BSEC (observer) CBSS CCC CE CEI CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA (observer) IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURSO MONUC NAM (guest) NATO NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIFIL UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNMOT UNOMIG UPU WCL WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Poland: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Poland - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Poland today stands out as one of the most successful and open transition economies. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms marked the rapid development of a private sector now responsible for 70% of economic activity. In contrast to the vibrant expansion of private non-farm activity the large agriculture component remains handicapped by structural problems surplus labor inefficient small farms and lack of investment. The government's determination to enter the EU as soon as possible affects most aspects of its economic policies. Improving Poland's worsening current account deficit and tightening monetary policy now focused on inflation targeting also are priorities. Warsaw continues to hold the budget deficit to around 2% of GDP. Structural reforms advanced in pensions health care and public administration in 1999 but resulted in larger than anticipated fiscal pressures. Further progress on public finance depends mainly on privatization of Poland's remaining state sector. Restructuring and privatization of 'sensitive sectors' (e.g. coal and steel) has begun but work remains to be done. Growth in 2000 should be moderately above 1999.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.8% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: potatoes fruits vegetables wheat; poultry eggs pork beef milk cheese

Industries: machine building iron and steel coal mining chemicals shipbuilding food processing glass beverages textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15.3 million (1998 est.)
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation agriculture: 25%
By occupation services: 50% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 23.8% (1993 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 8.4% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $27.8 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: manufactured goods and chemicals 57% machinery and equipment 21% food and live animals 12% mineral fuels 7% (1997)
Partners: Germany 36% Italy 5.8% Russia 5.6% Netherlands 4.7% France 4.6% Ukraine 3.8% UK 3.8 (1998)

Imports: $40.8 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: manufactured goods and chemicals 43% machinery and equipment 36% mineral fuels 9% food and live animals 8% (1997)
Partners: Germany 25.8% Italy 9.4% France 6.5% Russia 5.1% UK 4.9% US 3.8% Netherlands 3.8% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $44 billion (1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 4.1696 (December 1999) 3.9671 (1999) 3.4754 (1998) 3.2793 (1997) 2.6961 (1996) 2.4250 (1995)


Poland - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 134.879 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 121.938 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 8.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 4.6 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Poland - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1.58 million (1998)

Telephone system: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aims to have 10 million telephones in service by 2000; the process of partial privatization of the state-owned telephone monopoly has begun

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Poland - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $3.2 billion (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 2.1% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Poland - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 123 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 2,280 km; natural gas 17,000 km (1996)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,812 km navigable rivers and canals (1996)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Poland - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of amphetamines for the international market; minor transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe


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