Statistical information Rwanda 2000Rwanda

Map of Rwanda | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Rwanda in the World
Rwanda in the World

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Rwanda - Introduction 2000
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Background: In 1959 three years before independence the majority ethnic group the Hutus overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years thousands of Tutsis were killed and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and began a civil war in 1990. The war along with several political and economic upheavals exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April 1994 in a genocide in which roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the genocide in July 1994 but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi Tanzania Uganda and Zaire now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC). Since then most of the refugees have returned. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first ever local elections held in March 1999 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population displacements a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency and Rwandan involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.

Rwanda - Geography 2000
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Location: Central Africa east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east


Natural resources: gold cassiterite (tin ore) wolframite (tungsten ore) methane hydropower arable land
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 40 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Birunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo

Note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

Rwanda - People 2000
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Population: 7,229,129
Growth rate: 1.14% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 51.2% (1993 est.)


Ethnic groups: Hutu 84% Tutsi 15% Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular French (official) English (official) Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers

Religions: Roman Catholic 65% Protestant 9% Muslim 1% indigenous beliefs and other 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.14% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 34.78 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 20.95 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.46 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 120.06 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 5.07 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Rwanda - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic; presidential multiparty system

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 12 prefectures (in French - prefectures singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA singular - prefegitura); Butare Byumba Cyangugu Gikongoro Gisenyi Gitarama Kibungo Kibuye Kigali Kigali-ville Umutara Ruhengeri

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day 1 July (1962); Liberation Day 4 July (1994)

Constitution: on 5 May 1995 the Transitional National Assembly adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70 seats established on 12 December 1994 following a multiparty protocol of understanding; members were predetermined by the Arusha peace accord)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA]; Democratic and Socialist Party or PSD [Charles NIAKIRUTINKA Juvenal NKSUI Jacqueline MUHONGAYRIE]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Pierre Celestin RWIGEMA chairman]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Agnes NTAMABYALIRO]; National Repulican Movement for Democracy and Development or MRNDD (formerly known as the National Movement for Democracy and Development or MRND [Mathieu NGIRUMPATSE]; Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME commander]; Rwandan Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [leader NA]


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Rwanda: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) yellow and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea which has a plain yellow band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Rwanda - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base severely impoverished the population particularly women and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. In June 1998 Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. Continued growth in 2000 depends on the maintenance of international aid levels and the strengthening of world prices of coffee and tea.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.3% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: coffee tea pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums) bananas beans sorghum potatoes; livestock

Industries: cement agricultural products small-scale beverages soap furniture shoes plastic goods textiles cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 3.6 million
By occupation agriculture: 90% (the rest is employed in government, services, industry and commerce)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 51.2% (1993 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 10% (1998)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $70.8 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: coffee tea hides tin ore
Partners: Brazil Germany Belgium Pakistan Spain Kenya

Imports: $242 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs machinery and equipment steel petroleum products cement and construction material
Partners: Kenya Tanzania US Benelux France

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.2 billion (1998)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 349.53 (January 2000) 333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998) 301.53 (1997) 306.82 (1996) 262.20 (1995)

Rwanda - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 159 million kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 165 million kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Rwanda - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: telephone system primarily serves business and government

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Rwanda - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $92 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 3.8% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Rwanda - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km


Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Rwanda - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Rwandan military forces are supporting the rebel forces in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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