Statistical information Serbia and Montenegro 2000Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

Map of Serbia and Montenegro | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Serbia and Montenegro in the World
Serbia and Montenegro in the World

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Serbia and Montenegro - Introduction 2000
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Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US. The US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation. In 1999 massive expulsions by Serbs of ethnic Albanians living in the autonomous republic of Kosovo provoked an international response including the bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO and Russian peacekeepers in Kosovo.

Serbia and Montenegro - Geography 2000
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Location: Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N 21 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north continental climate (cold winters and hot humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south Adriatic climate along the coast hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north rich fertile plains; to the east limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast


Natural resources: oil gas coal antimony copper lead zinc nickel gold pyrite chrome hydro power
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Serbia and Montenegro - People 2000
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Population: 10,662,087 (Serbia - 9,981,929; Montenegro - 680,158)
Growth rate: Serbia - 0.739%; Montenegro - -12.22% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: Serb 62.6% Albanian 16.5% Montenegrin 5% Yugoslav 3.4% Hungarian 3.3% other 9.2% (1991)

Languages: Serbian 95% Albanian 5%

Religions: Orthodox 65% Muslim 19% Roman Catholic 4% Protestant 1% other 11%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: Serbia - 0.739%; Montenegro - -12.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: Serbia - 12.20 births/1000 population; Montenegro - 14.9 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: Serbia - 11.08 deaths/1000 population; Montenegro - 7.9 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: Serbia - 6.26 migrants/1000 population; Montenegro - -29.18 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: Serbia - 20.13 deaths/1000 live births; Montenegro - 10.97 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: Serbia - 1.70 children born/woman; Montenegro - 1.96 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Serbia and Montenegro - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade (Serbia) Podgorica (Montenegro)

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo* Montenegro Serbia Vojvodina*

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; 18 years of age universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats - 20 Serbian 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats - 108 Serbian with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24 proportionally; members serve four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms; Constitutional Court judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Goran SVILANOVIC chairman]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA president]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; Democratic League of Albanians [Rexhep QOSJA]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK [Bajram KOSUMI]; Party for the Democratic Progress of Kosovo or PPDK [Hashim THACI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV [Miodrag JSAKOV]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC president]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]

International organization participation: ICFTU IHO IMO Inmarsat Intelsat IOC ISO ITU NAM OPCW UNHCR

Diplomatic representation
In the us: the Embassy of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ceased operations 25 March 1999
From the us: at present the US has no diplomatic representation in Serbia and Montenegro; the US office in Pristina Kosovo was opened in 1999; its members are not accredited to a foreign government

Flag descriptionflag of Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Serbia and Montenegro - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare the destabilization of republic boundaries and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate mineral resources and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is the continuation in office of a government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable from 1995 through 1997 but inflationary pressures resurged in 1998. Reliable statistics continue to be hard to come by and the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to materialize. Government mismanagement of the economy is largely to blame but the damage to Serbia's infrastructure and industry by the NATO bombing during the war in Kosovo have added to problems. Also sanctions continue to isolate Belgrade from international financial institutions; an investment ban and asset freeze imposed in 1998 and the oil embargo imposed during the NATO bombing remain in place.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -20% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cereals fruits vegetables tobacco olives; cattle sheep goats

Industries: machine building (aircraft trucks and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel aluminum copper lead zinc chromium antimony bismuth cadmium); mining (coal bauxite nonferrous ore iron ore limestone); consumer goods (textiles footwear foodstuffs appliances); electronics petroleum products chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: -22% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.6 million (1999 est.)
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 42% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.5 billion (1999)
Commodities: manufactured goods food and live animals raw materials
Partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina Italy The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Germany (1998)

Imports: $3.3 billion (1999)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment fuels and lubricants manufactured goods chemicals food and live animals raw materials
Partners: Germany Italy Russia The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $14.1 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - official rate: 10.0 (December 1998) 5.85 (December 1997) 5.02 (September 1996) 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998) 8.9 (December 1997) 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Serbia and Montenegro - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 38.84 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 36.141 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 40 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Serbia and Montenegro - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 38,552 (1999)

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Serbia and Montenegro - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $911 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 6.5% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Serbia and Montenegro - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 48 (Serbia 43 Montenegro 5) (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km



Waterways: 587 km; Danube River runs through Serbia connecting Europe with the Black Sea; in early 2000 the river was obstructed at Novi Sad due to a pontoon bridge; a canal system in north Serbia is available to by-pass damage however lock size is limited (1999)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Serbia and Montenegro - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to resolve differences in delineation of their border has made no progress so far

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route

Iberostar Hotels

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