Statistical information Tonga 2000Tonga

Map of Tonga | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Tonga in the World
Tonga in the World

Undercover Tourist

Tonga - Introduction 2000
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Background: The archipelago of 'The Friendly Islands' was united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. It became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900. Tonga acquired its independence in 1970 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.

Tonga - Geography 2000
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Location: Oceania archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S 175 00 W

Map referenceOceania

Comparative: four times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May) cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base


Natural resources: fish fertile soil
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

Note: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

Tonga - People 2000
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Population: 102,321 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.91% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: Polynesian Europeans about 300

Languages: Tongan English

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.91% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 24.92 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.86 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 14.45 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Tonga - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuku'alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai Tongatapu Vava'u

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 June 1970 (emancipation from UK protectorate)

National holiday: Emancipation Day 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (30 seats - 12 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio nine for nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles and nine elected by popular vote; members serve three-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are appointed by the monarch; Privy Council with the addition of the chief justice of the Supreme Court sits as the Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights and Democracy Movement [Huliki WATAB chairman Viliami FUKOFUKA president 'Akilisi POHIVA vice president]

International organization participation: ACP AsDB C ESCAP FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO IMF Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC ITU Sparteca SPC SPF UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WMO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Tonga does not have an embassy in the US; Ambassador Akosita FINEANGANOFO resides in London; address: Embassy of the Kingdom of Tonga c/o Tonga High Commission 36 Molyneux Street London W1H 6AB telephone [44] (171) 724-5,828 FAX [44] (171) 723-9,074
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga

Flag descriptionflag of Tonga: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Tonga - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: The economy's base is agriculture which contributes 30% to GDP. Squash coconuts bananas and vanilla beans are the main crops and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food mainly from New Zealand. The industrial sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings. The country remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector especially the encouragement of investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.3% (1998 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: squash coconuts copra bananas vanilla beans cocoa coffee ginger black pepper; fish

Industries: tourism fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (FY95/96)

Labor force: 36,665 (1994)
By occupation: agriculture 65% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (FY93/94)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.2% (1998 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: squash fish vanilla beans
Partners: Japan 53% US 18% NZ 6% Australia 6% (1997 est.)

Imports: $69 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: foodstuffs machinery and transport equipment fuels chemicals
Partners: NZ 30% Australia 19% US 11% UK 11% Japan 3% (1997 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates

Tonga - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 35 million kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 33 million kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Tonga - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 114 (1995)

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Tonga - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $N/A
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Tonga - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km



Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Tonga - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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