Statistical information Turkey 2000Turkey

Map of Turkey | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Turkey in the World
Turkey in the World

Travelex


Turkey - Introduction 2000
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Background: the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace


Turkey - Geography 2000
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Location: Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe) bordering the

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N 35 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Area
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate; hot dry summers with mild wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Elevation

Natural resources: antimony coal chromium mercury copper borate sulfur iron ore arable land: hydropower
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 36,740 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes especially in northern Turkey along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Geography
Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus Sea of Marmara Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas


Turkey - People 2000
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Population: 65,666,677 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80% Kurdish 20%

Languages: Turkish (official) Kurdish Arabic Armenian Greek

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni) other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.65 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.96 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 48.9 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Turkey - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 80 provinces (iller singular - il); Adana Adiyaman Afyon Agri Aksaray Amasya Ankara Antalya Ardahan Artvin Aydin Balikesir Bartin Batman Bayburt Bilecik Bingol Bitlis Bolu Burdur Bursa Canakkale Cankiri Corum Denizli Diyarbakir Edirne Elazig Erzincan Erzurum Eskisehir Gazi Antep Giresun Gumushane Hakkari Hatay Icel Igdir Isparta Istanbul Izmir Kahraman Maras Karabuk Karaman Kars Kastamonu Kayseri Kilis Kirikkale Kirklareli Kirsehir Kocaeli Konya Kutahya Malatya Manisa Mardin Mugla Mus Nevsehir Nigde Ordu Osmaniye Rize Sakarya Samsun Sanli Urfa Siirt Sinop Sirnak Sivas Tekirdag Tokat Trabzon Tunceli Usak Van Yalova Yozgat Zonguldak

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic 29 October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president; Court of Appeals judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors

Political parties and leaders: Changing Turkey Party or DEPAR [Gokhan CAPOGLU]; Democracy and Peace Party or DBP [Yilmaz CAMLIBEL]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT]; Democratic Party or DP [Korkut OZAL]; Democratic Turkey Party or DTP [Husamettin CINDORUK]; Enlightened Turkey Party or ATP [Tugrul TURKES]; Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Ufuk URAS]; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Muhsin YAZICIOGLU]; Labor Party or EP [Ihsan CARALAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Besim TIBUK]; Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut YILMAZ]; My Turkey Party or TP [Durmus Ali EKER]; Nation Party or MP [Aykut EDIBALI]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; New Democracy Movement or YDH [Huseyin ERGUN]; Peace Party or BP [Ali Haydar VEZIROGLU]; People's Democracy Party or HADEP [Turhan DEMIR]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Altan OYMEN]; Revolutionary People's Party [Meral KIDIR]; Socialist Power Party or SIP [leader NA]; True Path Party or DYP [Tansu CILLER]; Virtue Party or FP [Recai KUTAN]; Workers' Party or IP [Dogu PERINCEK]

International organization participation: AsDB BIS BSEC CCC CE CERN (observer) EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NATO NEA OAS (observer) OECD OIC OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNOMIG UNRWA UPU WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Turkey - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Turkey has a dynamic economy that is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with traditional village agriculture and crafts. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry banking transport and communication. Its most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing which is almost entirely in private hands. The economic situation in recent years has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. After a sharp drop in 1994 real GNP averaged 6.5% annual growth in 1995-98; it then fell about 5% in 1999 as Turkey was adversely affected by Russia's economic crisis and two major earthquakes. The already-large public sector fiscal deficit widened in 1999 to perhaps 14% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments which accounted for 42% of central grovernment spending. Despite the implementation in January 1996 of a customs union with the EU foreign direct investment in the country remains low - less than $1 billion annually - perhaps because potential investors are concerned about economic and political stability. Prospects for the future are brighter - including prospects for foreign investment - because the ECEVIT government is implementing a major economic reform program including a tighter budget social security reform banking reorganization and greatly accelerated privatization.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: tobacco cotton grain olives sugar beets pulse citrus; livestock

Industries: textiles food processing autos mining (coal chromite copper boron) steel petroleum construction lumber paper

Industrial production growth rate: -5.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 23.8 million (April 1999)
By occupation agriculture: 45.8%
By occupation services: 33.7%
By occupation industry: 20.5% (April 1999)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.3% plus underemployment of 6.9% (April 1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 65% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $26 billion (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: apparel 28% foodstuffs 17% textiles 12% metal manufactures 9% (1998)
Partners: Germany 21% US 9% UK 7% Italy 6% France 6% (1999)

Imports: $40 billion (c.i.f. 1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery 29% semi-finished goods 16% chemicals 14% transport equipment 11% fuels 8% (1998)
Partners: Germany 14% Italy 8% US 8% France 8% Russia 6% UK 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $104 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 545,584 (January 2000) 418,783 (1999) 260,724 (1998) 151,865 (1997) 81,405 (1996) 45,845 (1995)


Turkey - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 116.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity consumption: 118.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 209 million kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity imports: 2.3 billion kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Turkey - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 3.2 million (1998)

Telephone system: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially cellular telephones

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Turkey - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.737 billion (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 4.3% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Turkey - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 118 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1200 km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Turkey - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: complex maritime air and territorial disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece; dispute with downstream riparian states (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air land and sea routes; major Turkish Iranian and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


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