Statistical information Turkmenistan 2000Turkmenistan

Map of Turkmenistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Turkmenistan in the World
Turkmenistan in the World


Turkmenistan - Introduction 2000
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Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885 Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.

Turkmenistan - Geography 2000
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Location: Central Asia bordering the Caspian Sea between Iran and Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N 60 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west


Natural resources: petroleum natural gas coal sulfur salt
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 13,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Turkmenistan - People 2000
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Population: 4,518,268 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.87% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77% Uzbek 9.2% Russian 6.7% Kazakh 2% other 5.1% (1995)

Languages: Turkmen 72% Russian 12% Uzbek 9% other 7%

Religions: Muslim 89% Eastern Orthodox 9% unknown 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.87% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.88 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.04 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.11 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals pesticides; salination water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 73.3 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 3.63 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Turkmenistan - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: republic

Capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat) Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag) Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz) Lebap Welayaty (Charjew) Mary Welayaty

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution there are two parliamentary bodies a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (more than 100 seats some of which are elected by popular vote and some of which are appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]

International organization participation: CCC CIS EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP FAO IBRD ICAO ICRM IDB IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Intelsat (nonsignatory user) IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU NAM OIC OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Turkmenistan: green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side containing five carpet guls (designs used in producing rugs) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon and five white stars appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Turkmenistan - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993 Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994 Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. With an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. Turkmenistan is working hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and Turkey to Europe but these will take many years to realize. In 1998-99 Turkmenistan faced revenue shortfalls due to the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and obligations on extensive short-term external debt. Prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty and the burden of foreign debt. IMF assistance would seem to be necessary yet the government is not as yet ready to accept IMF requirements. Turkmenistan's 1999 deal to ship 20 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas through Russia's Gazprom will help alleviate the 2000 fiscal shortfall but will not make up for the absence of meaningful progress in economic reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 9% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton grain; livestock

Industries: natural gas oil petroleum products textiles food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 2.34 million (1996)
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 44%
By occupation industry and construction: 19%
By occupation other: 37% (1996)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 30% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.1 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: oil and gas 55% cotton 22% (1998)
Partners: Iran Turkey Russia Kazakhstan Tajikistan Azerbaijan

Imports: $1.25 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 45% chemicals foodstuffs (1998)
Partners: Ukraine Turkey Russia Germany US Kazakhstan Uzbekistan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.1 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkmen manats per US$1 - 5,200 (January 2000) 5,350 (January 1999) 4,070 (January 1997) 2,400 (January 1996)

Turkmenistan - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.745 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 5.453 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 2.74 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 60 million kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Turkmenistan - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: poorly developed

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Turkmenistan - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $90 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 3.4% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Turkmenistan - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 64 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km



Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Turkmenistan - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan Iran Kazakhstan Russia and Turkmenistan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy mostly for domestic consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

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