Statistical information Uzbekistan 2000Uzbekistan

Map of Uzbekistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Uzbekistan in the World
Uzbekistan in the World

Trusted Tours

Uzbekistan - Introduction 2000
top of page

Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1925. During the Soviet era intensive production of 'white gold' (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militant groups from Tajikistan and Afghanistan a non-convertible currency and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Uzbekistan - Geography 2000
top of page

Location: Central Asia north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N 64 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

Coastline: 0 km

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert long hot summers mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya Sirdaryo (Syr Darya) and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west


Natural resources: natural gas petroleum coal gold uranium silver copper lead and zinc tungsten molybdenum
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 40,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: along with Liechtenstein one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

Uzbekistan - People 2000
top of page

Population: 24,755,519 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%


Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80% Russian 5.5% Tajik 5% Kazakh 3% Karakalpak 2.5% Tatar 1.5% other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Languages: Uzbek 74.3% Russian 14.2% Tajik 4.4% other 7.1%

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis) Eastern Orthodox 9% other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.18 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.02 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.18 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals including DDT

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 72.13 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures


School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Uzbekistan - Government 2000
top of page

Country name

Government type: republic; effectively authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch; executive power concentrated in the presidency

Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat) 1 autonomous republic* (respublikasi) and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon Wiloyati Bukhoro Wiloyati Farghona Wiloyati Jizzakh Wiloyati Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch) Namangan Wiloyati Nawoiy Wiloyati Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi) Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus) Samarqand Wiloyati Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston) Surkhondaryo Wiloyati (Termiz) Toshkent Shahri** Toshkent Wiloyati

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Turgunpulat DAMINOV first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Ibrahim GAFUROV chairman]; Fatherland Progress Party (Vatan Tarakiyoti) or VTP [Anvar YULDASHEV chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar [Erkin NORBOTAEV general secretary]


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Uzbekistan: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) white and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Uzbekistan - Economy 2000
top of page

Economy overview: Uzbekistan is a dry landlocked country of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated irrigated river valleys. It was one of the poorest areas of the former Soviet Union with more than 60% of its population living in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's third largest cotton exporter a major producer of gold and natural gas and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991 the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Faced with high rates of inflation however the government began to reform in mid-1994 by introducing tighter monetary policies expanding privatization slightly reducing the role of the state in the economy and improving the environment for foreign investors. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy and reforms have so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A growing debt burden persistent inflation and a poor business climate cloud growth prospects in 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton vegetables fruits grain; livestock

Industries: textiles food processing machine building metallurgy natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 11.9 million (1998 est.)
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 44%
By occupation industry: 20%
By occupation services: 36% (1995)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5% plus another 10% underemployed (December 1996 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 29% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.9 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: cotton gold natural gas mineral fertilizers ferrous metals textiles food products automobiles
Partners: Russia 15% Switzerland 10% UK 10% Belgium 4% Kazakhstan 4% Tajikistan 4% (1998)

Imports: $3.1 billion (1999 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemicals metals; foodstuffs
Partners: Russia 16% South Korea 11% Germany 8% US 7% Turkey 6% Kazakhstan 5% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.2 billion (1998 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soms (UKS) per US$1 - 141.4 (January 2000) 111.9 (February 1999) 110.95 (December 1998) 75.8 (September 1997) 41.1 (1996) 30.2 (1995)

Uzbekistan - Energy 2000
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 43.47 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 41.327 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 5.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 6 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Uzbekistan - Communication 2000
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 26,000 (1998)

Telephone system: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Uzbekistan - Military 2000
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $200 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 2% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Uzbekistan - Transportation 2000
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)



Waterways: 1100 (1990)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Uzbekistan - Transnational issues 2000
top of page

Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and very small amounts of opium poppy mostly for domestic consumption almost entirely eradicated by an effective government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it