Statistical information Venezuela 2000Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Venezuela in the World
Venezuela in the World

Skytours


Venezuela - Introduction 2000
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.


Venezuela - Geography 2000
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Location: Northern South America bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N 66 00 W

Map referenceSouth America Central America and the Caribbean

Area
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical; hot humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore gold bauxite other minerals hydropower diamonds
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land: 1900 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to floods rockslides mud slides; periodic droughts

Geography
Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America


Venezuela - People 2000
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Population: 23,542,649 (July 2000 est.)
Growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)
Below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)

Nationality

Ethnic groups: Spanish Italian Portuguese Arab German African indigenous people

Languages: Spanish (official) numerous indigenous dialects

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96% Protestant 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 21.09 births/1000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.94 deaths/1000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.19 migrant(s)/1000 population (2000 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution especially along the Caribbean coast

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 26.17 deaths/1000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate: 2.51 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Venezuela - Government 2000
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Country name

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 23 states (estados singular - estado)1 federal district* (distrito federal) and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas Anzoategui Apure Aragua Barinas Bolivar Carabobo Cojedes Delta Amacuro Dependencias Federales** Distrito Federal* Falcon Guarico Lara Merida Miranda Monagas Nueva Esparta Portuguesa Sucre Tachira Trujillo Vargas Yaracuy Zulia

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 30 December 1999

Legal system: based on organic laws as of July 1999; open adversarial court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional; under the 1999 constitution the bicameral Congress of the Republic has been replaced by a unicameral National Assembly; the total number of seats in the new National Assembly has not yet been determined but members will be elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats will be reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Action or AD [leader NA]; Fifth Republic Movement or MVR [leader NA]; Homeland for All or PPT [leader NA]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [leader NA]; National Convergence or Convergencia [leader NA]; Radical Cause or La Causa R [leader NA]; Social Christian Party or COPEI [leader NA]

International organization participation: CAN Caricom (observer) CCC CDB ECLAC FAO G- 3 G-11 G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU LAES LAIA MINURSO NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW OPEC PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) blue and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Venezuela - Economy 2000
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Economy overview: Venezuelan officials estimate the economy contracted 7.2% in 1999. A steep downturn in international oil prices during the first half of the year fueled the recession and spurred the CHAVEZ administration to abide by OPEC-led production cuts in an effort to raise world oil prices. The petroleum sector dominates the economy accounting for roughly a third of GDP around 80% of export earnings and more than half of government operating revenues. Higher oil prices during the second half 1999 took pressure off the budget and currency; the bolivar is widely believed to be overvalued by as much as 50%. Despite higher oil prices the economy remains in the doldrums possibly due to investor uncertainty over President CHAVEZ's reform agenda. Implementing legislation for the new constitution will not be passed until the second half of 2000 after a new legislature is elected. With the president's economic cabinet attempting to reconcile a wide range of views the country's economic reform program has largely stalled. The government is seeking international assistance to finance reconstruction after massive flooding and landslides in December 1999 caused an estimated $15 billion to $20 billion in damage.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -7.2% (1999 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: corn sorghum sugarcane rice bananas vegetables coffee; beef pork milk eggs; fish

Industries: petroleum iron ore mining construction materials food processing textiles steel aluminum motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 9.9 million (1999)
By occupation services: 64%
By occupation industry: 23%
By occupation agriculture: 13% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 20% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $20.9 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: petroleum bauxite and aluminum steel chemicals agricultural products basic manufactures (1998)
Partners: US and Puerto Rico 57% Colombia Brazil Japan Germany Netherlands Italy (1999)

Imports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: raw materials machinery and equipment transport equipment construction materials (1999)
Partners: US 53% Japan Colombia Italy Germany France Brazil Canada (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $32 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 652.333 (January 2000) 605.717 (1999) 547.556 (1998) 488.635 (1997) 417.333 (1996) 176.843 (1995)


Venezuela - Energy 2000
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 70.39 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity consumption: 65.463 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Venezuela - Communication 2000
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2 million (1998)

Telephone system: modern and expanding

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Venezuela - Military 2000
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $934 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 0.9% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Venezuela - Transportation 2000
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 366 (1999 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Venezuela - Transnational issues 2000
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Disputes international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium for the international drug trade on a small scale; however large quantities of cocaine and heroin transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; important money-laundering hub; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border


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