Egypt 2001Egypt

 Egypt | | | | | |
| | | :  |

Egypt
Egypt 

The Fives Hotels


Egypt - Introduction 2001
top of page


Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922 Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world) limited arable land: and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.


Egypt - Geography 2001
top of page


Location: Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 1,001,450 km²
Land: 995,450 km²
Water: 6,000 km²
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries
Total: 2,689 km
Border countries: (4) Gaza Strip 11 km; , Israel 255 km; , Libya 1,150 km; , Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; hot dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore phosphates manganese limestone gypsum talc asbestos lead zinc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes flash floods landslides volcanic activity; hot driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms sandstorms

Geography
Note: controls Sinai Peninsula only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees


Egypt - People 2001
top of page


Population: 69,536,644 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.69% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Egyptian
Adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians Bedouins and Berbers) 99% Greek Nubian Armenian other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Languages: Arabic (official) English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% Coptic Christian and other 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.59% (male 12,313,585; female 11,739,072)
15-64 years: 61.6% (male 21,614,284; female 21,217,978)
65 years and over: 3.81% (male 1,160,967; female 1,490,758) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.89 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs beaches and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides raw sewage and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 60.46 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.69 years
Male: 61.62 years
Female: 65.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 51.4%
Male: 63.6%
Female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Egypt - Government 2001
top of page


Country name
Conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local short form: Misr
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah Al Bahr al Ahmar Al Buhayrah Al Fayyum Al Gharbiyah Al Iskandariyah Al Isma'iliyah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Minya Al Qahirah Al Qalyubiyah Al Wadi al Jadid Ash Sharqiyah As Suways Aswan Asyut Bani Suwayf Bur Sa'id Dumyat Janub Sina' Kafr ash Shaykh Matruh Qina Shamal Sina' Suhaj

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Revolution Day 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law Islamic law and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
Head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch
Elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)
Election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders
Note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

International organization participation: ABEDA ACC ACCT (associate) AfDB AFESD AL AMF BSEC (observer) CAEU CCC EBRD ECA ESCWA FAO G-15 G-19 G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURSO MONUC NAM OAPEC OAS (observer) OAU OIC OSCE (partner) PCA UN UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNITAR UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNOMIG UNRWA UNTAET UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
In the us chancery: 3,521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 895-5,400
In the us fax: [1] (202) 244-4,319, 5,131
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
From the us embassy: 5 Latin America St., Garden City, Cairo
From the us mailing address: Unit 64,900, APO AE 9,839-4,900
From the us telephone: [20] (2) 795-7,371
From the us fax: [20] (2) 797-2000

Flag descriptionflag of Egypt: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Egypt - Economy 2001
top of page


Economy overview: A series of IMF arrangements - along with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance during the 1990s. Sound fiscal and monetary policies through the mid-1990s helped to tame inflation slash budget deficits and build up foreign reserves while structural reforms such as privatization and new business legislation prompted increased foreign investment. By mid-1998 however the pace of structural reform slackened and lower combined hard currency earnings resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic US dollar shortages. External payments were not in crisis but Cairo's attempts to curb demand for foreign exchange convinced some investors and currency traders that government financial operations lacked transparency and coordination. Monetary pressures have since eased however with the 1999-2000 higher oil prices a rebound in tourism and a series of mini-devaluations of the pound. The development of a gas export market is a major plus factor in future growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 17%
Industry: 32%
Services: 51% (1999)

Agriculture products: cotton rice corn wheat beans fruits vegetables; cattle water buffalo sheep goats

Industries: textiles food processing tourism chemicals hydrocarbons construction cement metals

Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 19.9 million (2000 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 29%
By occupation services: 49%
By occupation industry: 22% (FY99)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 4.4%
Highest 10: 25% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $22.6 billion
Expenditures: $26.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: crude oil and petroleum products cotton textiles metal products chemicals
Partners: EU 35% Middle East 17% Afro-Asian countries 14% US 12% (1999)

Imports: $17 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment foodstuffs chemicals wood products fuels
Partners: EU 36% US 14% Afro-Asian countries 14% Middle East 6% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $31 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 3.8400 (January 2001) 3.6900 (2000) 3.4050 (1999) 3.3880 (1998) 3.3880 (1997) 3.3880 (1996)


Egypt - Energy 2001
top of page


Electricity access

Electricity production: 64.685 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 76.59%
By source hydro: 23.41%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 60.157 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Egypt - Communication 2001
top of page


Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
Domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .eg

Internet users: 300,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Egypt - Military 2001
top of page


Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.04 billion (FY99/00)
Percent of gdp: 4.1% (FY99/00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Egypt - Transportation 2001
top of page


National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 90 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 69
With paved runways over 3047 m: 12
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 35
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 17
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 21
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 69
Over 3047 m: 12
2438 to 3047 m: 35
15-24 to 2437 m: 17
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 21
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Railways
Total: 4,955 km
Standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km double track) (2000)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Merchant marine
Total: 181 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,336,678 GRT/1,982,220 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 23, cargo 61, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 61, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Egypt - Transnational issues 2001
top of page


Disputes international: Egypt asserts its claim to the 'Hala'ib Triangle' a barren area of 20,580 km² under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Iberostar Hotels


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it