Hungary 2001Hungary

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Hungary
Hungary 

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Hungary - Introduction 2001
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Background: Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956 a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991 Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.


Hungary - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Europe northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N 20 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²
Water: 690 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries
Total: 2,009 km
Border countries: (7) Austria 366 km; , Croatia 329 km; , Romania 443 km; , Yugoslavia 151 km; , Slovakia 515 km; , Slovenia 102 km; , Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold cloudy humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
Extremes highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite coal natural gas fertile soils arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 51%
Permanent crops: 3.6%
Permanent pastures: 12.4%
Forests and woodland: 19%
Other: 14% (1999)

Irrigated land: 2,060 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin


Hungary - People 2001
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Population: 10,106,017 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: -0.32% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 8.6% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Hungarian
Adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9% Roma 4% German 2.6% Serb 2% Slovak 0.8% Romanian 0.7%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2% other 1.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5% Calvinist 20% Lutheran 5% atheist and other 7.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16.63% (male 862,468; female 818,052)
15-64 years: 68.66% (male 3,406,717; female 3,532,008)
65 years and over: 14.71% (male 546,992; female 939,780) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.32% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.32 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.21 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.74 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management energy efficiency and air soil and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male/female
Total population: 0.91 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.96 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.63 years
Male: 67.28 years
Female: 76.3 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 2,500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98% (1980 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Hungary - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Conventional short form: Hungary
Local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek singular - megye) 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos) and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun Baranya Bekes Bekescsaba* Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen Budapest** Csongrad Debrecen* Dunaujvaros* Eger* Fejer Gyor* Gyor-Moson-Sopron Hajdu-Bihar Heves Hodmezovasarhely* Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok Kaposvar* Kecskemet* Komarom-Esztergom Miskolc* Nagykanizsa* Nograd Nyiregyhaza* Pecs* Pest Somogy Sopron* Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Szeged* Szekesfehervar* Szolnok* Szombathely* Tatabanya* Tolna Vas Veszprem Veszprem* Zala Zalaegerszeg*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day 20 August

Constitution: 18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Legal system: rule of law based on Western model

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)
Head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 6 July 1998)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
Elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
Election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Viktor ORBAN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round

Legislative branch
Elections: last held on 10 and 24 May 1998 (next to be held May/June 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSZP 32.0%, FIDESZ 28.2%, FKGP 13.8%, SZDSZ 7.9%, MIEP 5.5%, MMP 4.1%, MDF 2.8%, KDNP 2.3%, MDNP 1.5%; seats by party - MSZP 134, FIDESZ 148, FKGP 48, SZDSZ 24, MDF 17, MIEP 14, independent 1; note - seating as of 2000 by party - MSZP 136, FIDESZ 141, FKGP 48, SZDSZ 24, MDF 16, MIEP 12, independents 9

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor DEMSZKY]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY president]; Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Party or FYD-HCP [Laszlo KOVER]; note - used to be Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN president]

International organization participation: ABEDA Australia Group BIS CCC CE CEI CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO G- 9 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURSO NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE PCA PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOGIP UNOMIG UNU UPU WCL WEU (associate) WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Geza JESZENSZKY
In the us chancery: 3,910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 362-6,730
In the us fax: [1] (202) 966-8,135
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. TUFO
From the us embassy: Szabadsag Ter 12, H.-1054 Budapest
From the us mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5,270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-5,270
From the us telephone: [36] (1) 475-4,400, 475-4,703 (after hours)
From the us fax: [36] (1) 475-4,764

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) white and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Hungary - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling $23 billion by 2000. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation - a top economic concern in 2000 - is still high at almost 10% pushed upward by higher world oil and gas and domestic food prices. Economic reform measures such as health care reform tax reform and local government financing have not yet been addressed by the ORBAN government.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 35%
Services: 60% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat corn sunflower seed potatoes sugar beets; pigs cattle poultry dairy products

Industries: mining metallurgy construction materials processed foods textiles chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals) motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 18% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million (1997)
By occupation services: 65%
By occupation industry: 27%
By occupation agriculture: 8% (1996)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 8.6% (1993 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3.9%
Highest 10: 24.8% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $13 billion
Expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9.8% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $25.2 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 59.5% other manufactures 29.4% food products 6.9% raw materials 2.4% fuels and electricity 1.8% (2000)
Partners: Germany 37% Austria 9% Italy 6% Netherlands 5% (2000)

Imports: $27.6 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 51.1% other manufactures 35.9% fuels and electricity 8.1% food products 2.8% raw materials 2.1% (2000)
Partners: Germany 25% Russia 8% Austria 7% Italy 7% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $29.6 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: forints per US dollar - 282.240 (January 2001) 282.179 (2000) 237.146 (1999) 214.402 (1998) 186.789 (1997) 152.647 (1996)


Hungary - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 36.75 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 61.09%
By source hydro: 0.51%
By source nuclear: 38.4%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 35.234 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 2.35 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 3.406 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Hungary - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 1.269 million (July 1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
Domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
International: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .hu

Internet users: 650,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Hungary - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $822 million (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 1.6% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Hungary - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 43 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 16
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 27
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 12
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 16
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 27
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 12
Under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 5 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Railways
Total: 7,606 km
Broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
Standard gauge: 7,394 km 1.435-m gauge (2,270 km electrified; 1,236 km double track)
Narrow gauge: 176 km 0.760-m gauge (1998)
Note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) a distance of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria

Roadways

Waterways: 1373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)

Merchant marine
Total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,199 GRT/1,050 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Hungary - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: Gabcikovo/Nagymaros Dam dispute with Slovakia is before the ICJ

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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