Moldova 2001Moldova

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Moldova
Moldova 

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Moldova - Introduction 2001
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population mostly Ukrainians and Russians who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe and plagued by a moribund economy in 2001 Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist as its president.


Moldova - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Europe northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N 29 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Area
Total: 33,843 km²
Land: 33,371 km²
Water: 472 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,389 km
Border countries: (2) Romania 450 km; , Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Nistru (Dnister) River 2 m
Extremes highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources: lignite phosphorites gypsum arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 53%
Permanent crops: 14%
Permanent pastures: 13%
Forests and woodland: 13%
Other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Geography
Note: landlocked


Moldova - People 2001
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Population: 4,431,570 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.05% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Moldovan
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups
Note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Languages: Moldovan (official virtually the same as the Romanian language) Russian Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5% Jewish 1.5% Baptist (only about 1000 members) (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22.44% (male 506,303; female 488,311)
15-64 years: 67.62% (male 1,437,492; female 1,559,090)
65 years and over: 9.94% (male 163,473; female 276,901) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.05% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.35 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.6 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals including banned pesticides such as DDT has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male/female
Total population: 0.91 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 42.74 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.6 years
Male: 60.15 years
Female: 69.26 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 4,500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: 99%
Female: 94% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Moldova - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: none
Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: 10 juletule (singular - juletul) 1 municipality* and 1 autonomous territorial unit**; Balti Cahul Chisinau Chisinau* Dubasari Edinet Gagauzia** Lapusna Orhei Soroca Tighina Ungheni

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 27 August (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
Head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), three Deputy Prime Ministers: Valerian CRISTEA, Andrei CUCU, and Dmitri TODOROGLO (all since 19 April 2001)
Cabinet: selected by prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001; presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections (moved up a year to February 2001); according to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with Parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated on 15 April 2001, cabinet received vote of confidence on 19 April 2001
Election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV elected Prime Minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)

Political parties and leaders: Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN first chairman]

International organization participation: ACCT BIS BSEC CCC CE CEI CIS EAPC EBRD ECE FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU IDA IFAD IFC ILO IMF Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ceslav CIOBANU
In the us chancery: 2,101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-1204
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rudolf Vilem PERINA
From the us embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevicie, #103, Chisinau 2009
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,080
From the us telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72
From the us fax: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side) yellow and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head star rose and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Moldova - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result the economy depends heavily on agriculture featuring fruits vegetables wine and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil coal and natural gas largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort Moldova introduced a convertible currency freed all prices stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises backed steady land privatization removed export controls and freed interest rates. Yet these efforts could not offset the impact of political and economic difficulties both internal and regional. In 1998 the economic troubles of Russia by far Moldova's leading trade partner were a major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP. In 1999 GDP fell again by 4.4% the fifth drop in the past seven years; exports were down and energy supplies continued to be erratic. GDP declined slightly in 2000 with a serious drought hurting agriculture. Growth should turn positive in 2001.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -1.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 31%
Industry: 35%
Services: 34% (1998)

Agriculture products: vegetables fruits wine grain sugar beets sunflower seed tobacco; beef milk

Industries: food processing agricultural machinery foundry equipment refrigerators and freezers washing machines hosiery sugar vegetable oil shoes textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1998)
By occupation agriculture: 40%
By occupation industry: 14%
By occupation other: 46% (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.9% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (November 2000)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.7%
Highest 10: 25.8% (1992)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $536 million
Expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 32% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $500 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: foodstuffs 57% wine tobacco; textiles and footwear machinery (1999)
Partners: Russia 41% Romania 9% Germany 8% Ukraine 7% Italy Belarus (1999)

Imports: $761 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: mineral products and fuel 38% machinery and equipment chemicals textiles (1999)
Partners: Russia 21% Romania 16% Ukraine 14% Germany 12% Italy 6% Belarus (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $900 million (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 12.3728 (January 2001) 12.4342 (2000) 10.5158 (1999) 5.3707 (1998) 4.6236 (1997) 4.6045 (1996); note - lei is the plural form of leu


Moldova - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4.155 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 93.62%
By source hydro: 6.38%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 5.78 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1.916 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Moldova - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2,200 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way
Domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced
International: service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .md

Internet users: 15,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Moldova - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Moldova - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 30 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 7
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 23
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 7
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 23
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 14 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Railways
Total: 1,328 km
Broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Roadways

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Moldova - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: separatist Transnistria region comprising the area between the Nistru (Dniester) River and Ukraine has its own de facto government dominated by Moldovan Slavs

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Iberostar Hotels


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