Seychelles 2001Seychelles

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Seychelles
Seychelles 

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Seychelles - Introduction 2001
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Background: A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814 when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993.


Seychelles - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Africa group of islands in the Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S 55 40 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 455 km²
Land: 455 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic narrow coastal strip rocky hilly; others are coral flat elevated reefs

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish copra cinnamon trees
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 13%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 11%
Other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible

Geography
Note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands


Seychelles - People 2001
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Population: 79,715 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.49% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
Adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians Africans Europeans)

Languages: English (official) French (official) Creole

Religions: Roman Catholic 90% Anglican 8% other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28.27% (male 11,367; female 11,167)
15-64 years: 65.47% (male 25,453; female 26,737)
65 years and over: 6.26% (male 1,673; female 3,318) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.66 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.65 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.15 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male/female
Total population: 0.93 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.69 years
Male: 65.17 years
Female: 76.37 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 58%
Male: 56%
Female: 60% (1971 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Seychelles - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
Conventional short form: Seychelles

Government type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins Anse Boileau Anse Etoile Anse Louis Anse Royale Baie Lazare Baie Sainte Anne Beau Vallon Bel Air Bel Ombre Cascade Glacis Grand' Anse (on Mahe) Grand' Anse (on Praslin) La Digue La Riviere Anglaise Mont Buxton Mont Fleuri Plaisance Pointe La Rue Port Glaud Saint Louis Takamaka

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day 18 June (1993)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law French civil law and customary law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
Election results: France Albert RENE reelected president; percent of vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 66.7%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 19.5%, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 13.8%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 61.7%, UO 26.1%, DP 12.1%; seats by party - SPPF 30, UO 3, DP 1
Note: the 9 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM]; Seychelles National Party or SNP (formerly the United Opposition or UO) [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE] - the governing party

International organization participation: ACCT ACP AfDB C CCC ECA FAO G-77 IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO InOC Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC ITU NAM OAU OPCW SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Claude Sylvestre MOREL
In the us chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10,017
In the us telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
In the us fax: [1] (212) 972-1786
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag descriptionflag of Seychelles: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side) yellow red white and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Seychelles - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Since independence in 1976 per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming fishing and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded the government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff international competition. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit and further privatization of public enterprises. Growth slowed in 1998-2000 due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors. Tight controls on exchange rates and the scarcity of foreign exchange have hindered short-term economic prospects. The black market value of the Seychelles ruppee is half the official exchange rate; without a devaluation of the currency the tourist sector should remain sluggish as vacationers seek cheaper destinations such as Comoros Mauritius and Madagascar.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.1%
Industry: 26.3%
Services: 70.6% (1999)

Agriculture products: coconuts cinnamon vanilla sweet potatoes cassava (tapioca) bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla coir (coconut fiber) rope boat building printing furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 30,900 (1996)
By occupation industry: 19%
By occupation services: 71%
By occupation agriculture: 10% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $249 million
Expenditures: $262 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 6% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $111 million (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: fish cinnamon bark copra petroleum products (reexports)
Partners: France UK Netherlands Italy China Germany Japan

Imports: $440 million (c.i.f. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and equipment foodstuffs petroleum products chemicals
Partners: South Africa UK China Singapore France Italy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $240 million (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees per US dollar - 6.0397 (November 2000) 5.6009 (2000) 53,426 (1999) 5.2622 (1998) 5.0263 (1997) 4.9700 (1996)


Seychelles - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 160 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 148.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Seychelles - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 16,316 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: effective system
Domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago
International: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .sc

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Seychelles - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13 million (FY93)
Percent of gdp: 2.8% (FY93)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Seychelles - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 8
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 8
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways: 0 km

Roadways

Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,353 GRT/7,638 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Seychelles - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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