Taiwan 2001Taiwan

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Taiwan
Taiwan 

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Taiwan - Introduction 2001
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Background: In 1895 military defeat forced China to cede Taiwan to Japan however it reverted to Chinese control after World War II. Following the communist victory on the mainland in 1949 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. Over the next five decades the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the native population within its governing structure. Throughout this period the island has prospered to become one of East Asia's economic 'Tigers.' The dominant political issue continues to be the relationship between Taiwan and China and the question of eventual reunification.


Taiwan - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Asia islands bordering the East China Sea Philippine Sea South China Sea and Taiwan Strait north of the Philippines off the southeastern coast of China

Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N 121 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total: 35,980 km²
Land: 32,260 km²
Water: 3,720 km²
Note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1566.3 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Yu Shan 3,997 m

Natural resources: small deposits of coal natural gas limestone marble and asbestos
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 24%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 5%
Forests and woodland: 55%
Other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons

Geography


Taiwan - People 2001
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Population: 22,370,461 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.8% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 1% (1999 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84% mainland Chinese 14% aborigine 2%

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official) Taiwanese (Min) Hakka dialects

Religions: mixture of Buddhist Confucian and Taoist 93% Christian 4.5% other 2.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 21.22% (male 2,470,270; female 2,276,108)
15-64 years: 69.97% (male 7,944,451; female 7,707,250)
65 years and over: 8.81% (male 1,034,230; female 938,152) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.8% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.31 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
International agreements party to: none of the selected agreements
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.09 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.09 male/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male/female
Total population: 1.05 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.93 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.54 years
Male: 73.81 years
Female: 79.51 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 86% (1980 est.); note - literacy for the total population has reportedly increased to 94% (1998 est.)
Male: 93% (1980 est.)
Female: 79% (1980 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Taiwan - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Taiwan
Local long form: none
Local short form: T'ai-wan
Former: Formosa

Government type: multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly elected president

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions
Note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization

Dependent areas

Independence

National holiday: Republic Day (Anniversary of the Chinese Revolution) 10 October (1911)

Constitution: 1 January 1947 amended in 1992 1994 1997 and 1999

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President CHEN Shui-bien (20 May 2000) and Vice President Annette LU (since 20 May 2000)
Head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) CHANG Chun-hsiung (since NA October 2000) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) LAI In-jaw (since NA October 2000)
Cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 18 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier
Election results: CHEN Shui-bien elected president; percent of vote - CHEN Shui-bien (DPP) 39.3%, James SOONG (independent) 36.84%, LIEN Chan (KMT) 23.1%, HSU Hsin-liang (independent) 0.63%, LEE Ao (CNP) 0.13%

Legislative branch
Elections: Legislative Yuan - last held 5 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2001); National Assembly - last held 23 March 1996 (next to be held NA June 2002)
Election results: Legislative Yuan - percent of vote by party - KMT 46%, DPP 29%, CNP 7%, independents 10%, other parties 8%; seats by party - KMT 123, DPP 70, CNP 11, independents 15, other parties 6; subsequent to the election there have been some changes in the distribution of seats in the Legislative Yuan due to new party formation and party defections, the new distribution is as follows - KMT 114, DPP 66, PFP 17, NP 9, other/independent 19; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - KMT 55%, DPP 30%, CNP 14%, other 1%; seats by party - KMT 183, DPP 99, CNP 46, other 6

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly; note - beginning in 2003 justices will be appointed by the president with the consent of the Legislative Yuan)

Political parties and leaders: Chinese New Party or CNP [HAU Lang-bin]; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Frank HSIEH chairman]; Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [LIEN Chan chairman]; New Party or NP [LI Ching-hwa]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG chairman]; other minor parties

International organization participation: APEC AsDB BCIE ICC ICFTU IFRCS IOC WCL WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a private instrumentality the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) in the US with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 12 other US cities
From the us: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people on Taiwan are maintained through a private corporation the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) which has its headquarters in Rosslyn Virginia (telephone: [1] (703) 525-8,474 and FAX: [1] (703) 841-1385) and offices in Taipei at #7 Lane 134 Hsin Yi Road Section 3 telephone [886] (2) 2,709-2000 FAX [886] (2) 2,702-7,675 and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3rd Road 5th Floor telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157 FAX [886] (7) 223-8,237 and the American Trade Center at Room 3,208 International Trade Building Taipei World Trade Center 333 Keelung Road Section 1 Taipei 10,548 telephone [886] (2) 2,720-1550 FAX [886] (2) 2,757-7,162

Flag descriptionflag of Taiwan: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Taiwan - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by government authorities. In keeping with this trend some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have grown even faster and have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are low; the trade surplus is substantial; and foreign reserves are the world's fourth largest. Agriculture contributes 3% to GDP down from 35% in 1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in China Thailand Indonesia the Philippines Malaysia and Vietnam. The tightening of labor markets has led to an influx of foreign workers both legal and illegal. Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths Taiwan suffered little compared with many of its neighbors from the Asian financial crisis in 1998-99. Growth in 2001 will depend largely on conditions in Taiwan's export markets and may be about 5%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3%
Industry: 33%
Services: 64% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: rice corn vegetables fruit tea; pigs poultry beef milk; fish

Industries: electronics petroleum refining chemicals textiles iron and steel machinery cement food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.8 million (2000 est.)
By occupation services: 55%
By occupation industry: 37%
By occupation agriculture: 8% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 1% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $42.74 billion
Expenditures: $48.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June (up to FY98/99); 1 July 1999 - 31 December 2000 for FY00; calendar year (after FY00)

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.3% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $148.38 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 51% metals textiles plastics chemicals
Partners: US 23.5% Hong Kong 21.1% Europe 16% ASEAN 12.2% Japan 11.2% (2000)

Imports: $140.01 billion (c.i.f. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 51% minerals precision instruments
Partners: Japan 27.5% US 17.9% Europe 13.6% (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $40 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: new Taiwan dollars per US dollar - 33.082 (yearend 2000) 31.395 (yearend 1999) 32.216 (1998) 32.052 (1997) 27.5 (1996)


Taiwan - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 139.676 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 67.26%
By source hydro: 6.32%
By source nuclear: 26.42%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 129.899 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Taiwan - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 16 million (September 2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: provides telecommunications service for every business and private need
Domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe (1999)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .tw

Internet users: 6.4 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Taiwan - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $8.042 billion (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 2.8% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Taiwan - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 39 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 35
With paved runways over 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 8
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 4
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 35
Over 3047 m: 8
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 8
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: petroleum products 3,400 km; natural gas 1800 km (1999)

Railways
Total: 4,600 km (519 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 4,600 km 1.067-m
Note: only 1,108 km of route length (including the electrified part) is used in common carrier service by the Taiwan Railway Administration; the remaining 3,492 km is dedicated to industrial use (1999)

Roadways

Waterways: NA

Merchant marine
Total: 167 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,768,145 GRT/7,508,941 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 29, combination bulk 1, container 65, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Taiwan - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China Malaysia Philippines Vietnam and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai) as does China

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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