Statistical information Armenia 2001Armenia

Map of Armenia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Armenia in the World
Armenia in the World

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Armenia - Introduction 2001
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Background: An Orthodox Christian country Armenia was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh a primarily Armenian-populated exclave assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the exclave in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994 when a cease-fire took hold Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

Armenia - Geography 2001
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Location: Southwestern Asia east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N 45 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Total: 29,800 km²
Land: 28,400 km²
Water: 1,400 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,254 km
Border countries: (5) Azerbaijan-proper 566 km; , Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km; , Georgia 164 km; , Iran 35 km; , Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental hot summers cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m
Extremes highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold copper molybdenum zinc alumina
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 17%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 24%
Forests and woodland: 15%
Other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Note: landlocked

Armenia - People 2001
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Population: 3,336,100 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 45% (1999 est.)

Noun: Armenian
Adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups
Note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Languages: Armenian 96% Russian 2% other 2%

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23.23% (male 394,194; female 380,911)
15-64 years: 67.04% (male 1,094,646; female 1,141,760)
65 years and over: 9.73% (male 135,477; female 189,112) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.47 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.74 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.87 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade the result of conflict with Azerbaijan has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) a result of its use as a source for hydropower threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 41.27 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 66.49 years
Male: 62.12 years
Female: 71.08 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Armenia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
Conventional short form: Armenia
Local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Local short form: Hayastan
Former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer singular - marz) and 1 city* (k'aghak'ner singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn Ararat Armavir Geghark'unik' Kotayk' Lorri Shirak Syunik' Tavush Vayots' Dzor Yerevan*

Dependent areas

Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 21 September (1991)

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
Head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 59.5%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 40.5%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in the spring of 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - unity bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20), Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a bloc) 21, ACP 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7, NDU 6, Law-Governed Party 6, independents 10, unfilled 2; note - seats by party change frequently

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenia Party [Myasnik ALKHASYAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINYAN]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ('Dashnak' Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar AZATAKAN chairman]; Free Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN chairman]; Law and Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN chairman]; Law-Governed Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN chairman]; Mission Party [Artush PAPOIAN chairman]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National State Party [Samvel SHAGINIAN]; Pan-Armenian National Movement or PANM [Vano SIRADEGHYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Gayane SARUKHYAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian) Party [Ernst SOGOMONYAN]; Stability Group [Vartan AYVAZIAN chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir HAIRIKIAN chairman]; Unity Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN and Andranik MARKARYAN] (a coalition of the Republican Party and People's Party of Armenia)


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSIAN
In the us chancery: 2,225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
In the us fax: [1] (202) 319-2,982
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. LEMMON
From the us embassy: 18 Marshal Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,020
From the us telephone: [374] (2) 52-16-11
From the us fax: [374] (2) 151-550

Flag descriptionflag of Armenia: three equal horizontal bands of red (top) blue and orange

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Armenia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector supplying machine tools textiles and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991 Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits (gold bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994 however the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2000. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in recent years have been largely offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia's severe trade imbalance importing three times its exports has been offset somewhat by international aid domestic restructuring of the economy and foreign direct investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 40%
Industry: 25%
Services: 35% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: fruit (especially grapes) vegetables; livestock

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools forging-pressing machines electric motors tires knitted wear hosiery shoes silk fabric chemicals trucks instruments microelectronics gem cutting jewelry manufacturing software development brandy

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1999)
By occupation agriculture: 55%
By occupation services: 25%
By occupation industry: 20% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate
Note: official rate is 9.3% for 1998

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 45% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $360 million
Expenditures: $566 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: diamonds scrap metal machinery and equipment brandy copper ore
Partners: Belgium 36% Iran 15% Russia 14% US 7% Turkmenistan Georgia (1999)

Imports: $913 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: natural gas petroleum tobacco products foodstuffs diamonds
Partners: Russia 17% US 11% Belgium 11% Iran 10% UK Turkey (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $836 million (January 2001)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drams per US dollar - 554.29 (1 February 2001) 539.53 (2000) 535.06 (1999) 504.92 (1998) 490.85 (1997) 414.04 (1996)

Armenia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.668 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 45.56%
By source hydro: 23.25%
By source nuclear: 31.19%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 6.201 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Armenia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 6,220 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion
Domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
International: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .am

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Armenia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $75 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 4% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Armenia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 7
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 7
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
Broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2001)


Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Armenia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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