Statistical information Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World
Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Introduction 2001
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Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from the former Yugoslavia in February 1992. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a 'greater Serbia.' In March 1994 Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995 in Dayton Ohio the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government is charged with conducting foreign economic and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96 a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place at a level of approximately 21,000 troops.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography 2001
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Location: Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N 18 00 E

Map referenceBosnia and Herzegovina Europe

Total: 51,129 km²
Land: 51,129 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 1,459 km
Border countries: (2) Croatia 932 km; , Yugoslavia 527 km

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short cool summers and long severe winters; mild rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal iron bauxite manganese forests copper chromium lead zinc hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 14%
Permanent crops: 5%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 39%
Other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority

Bosnia and Herzegovina - People 2001
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Note: all data dealing with population are subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.38% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups
Note: Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Languages: Croatian Serbian Bosnian

Religions: Muslim 40% Orthodox 31% Roman Catholic 15% Protestant 4% other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20.13% (male 405,713; female 383,850)
15-64 years: 70.78% (male 1,422,796; female 1,353,410)
65 years and over: 9.09% (male 150,802; female 205,634) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.99 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.91 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male/female
Total population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 24.35 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.75 years
Male: 69.04 years
Female: 74.65 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: NA
Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Local long form: none
Local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Day 25 November (1943)

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement signed 14 December 1995 included a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; 18 years of age universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Jozo KRIZANOVI (chairman since 14 June 2001, presidency member since NA March 2001 - Croat); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Beriz BELKIC (since NA March 2001 - Bosniak); note - Ante JELAVIC was dismissed from his post by the UN High Representative in March 2001
Head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since 18 July 2001)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
Elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives
Election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first 8 months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Halid GENJAC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March 2001
Note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 27 February 2001); Vice President Safet HALILOVIC (since 27 February 2001); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000)

Legislative branch
Elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the 11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)
Election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
Note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples (74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1, Pensioners' Party 1; as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

Judicial branch
Note: a new state court, established in November 1999, has jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are ten cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [leader vacant]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Democratic National Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance (Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]

International organization participation: BIS CE (guest) CEI EBRD ECE FAO G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO IDA IFAD IFC ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NAM (guest) OAS (observer) OIC (observer) OPCW OSCE UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNMEE UNTAET UPU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
In the us chancery: 2,109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
In the us fax: [1] (202) 337-1502
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER
From the us embassy: Alipasina 43, 71,000 Sarajevo
From the us mailing address: use street address
From the us telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
From the us fax: [387] (33) 659-722
From the us branch offices: Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag descriptionflag of Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands farms are small and inefficient and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995 unemployment to soar and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999 and 2000 and GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because although both entities issue figures national-level statistics are not available. Moreover official data do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - has gained wide acceptance and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization however has been slower than anticipated. Banking reform accelerated in early 2001 as all the communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 19%
Industry: 23%
Services: 58% (1996 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat corn fruits vegetables; livestock

Industries: steel coal iron ore lead zinc manganese bauxite vehicle assembly textiles tobacco products wooden furniture tank and aircraft assembly domestic appliances oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.026 million
By occupation agriculture: NA%
By occupation industry: NA%
By occupation services: NA%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.9 billion
Expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 8% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $950 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: NA
Partners: Croatia Switzerland Italy Germany

Imports: $2.45 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: NA
Partners: Croatia Slovenia Germany Italy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.4 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: marka per US dollar - 2.086 (January 2001) 2.124 (2000) 1.837 (1999) 1.760 (1998) 1.734 (1997) 0.015 (1996)

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.585 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 38.68%
By source hydro: 61.32%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 2.684 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 150 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 430 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 9,000 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
Domestic: NA
International: no satellite earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ba

Internet users: 3,500 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 28 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 9
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 19
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 9
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 19
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)

Total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam until grids are repaired)
Standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge; note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction (2000)


Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges silt and debris

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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