Statistical information Brazil 2001Brazil

Map of Brazil | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Brazil in the World
Brazil in the World

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Brazil - Introduction 2001
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Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Brazil - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S 55 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 8,511,965 km²
Land: 8,456,510 km²
Water: 55,455 km²
Note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 14,691 km
Border countries: (10) Argentina 1,224 km; , Bolivia 3,400 km; , Colombia 1,643 km; , French Guiana 673 km; , Guyana 1,119 km; , Paraguay 1,290 km; , Peru 1,560 km; , Suriname 597 km; , Uruguay 985 km; , Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly tropical but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains hills mountains and narrow coastal belt

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite gold iron ore manganese nickel phosphates platinum tin uranium petroleum hydropower timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 22%
Forests and woodland: 58%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

Brazil - People 2001
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Note: Brazil took an intercensal count in August 1996 which reported a population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Noun: Brazilian
Adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese German Italian Spanish Polish) 55% mixed white and black 38% black 6% other (includes Japanese Arab Amerindian) 1%

Languages: Portuguese (official) Spanish English French

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 28.57% (male 25,390,039; female 24,449,902)
15-64 years: 65.98% (male 56,603,895; female 58,507,289)
65 years and over: 5.45% (male 3,857,564; female 5,659,886) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.45 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.34 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail sentences
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 36.96 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.24 years
Male: 58.96 years
Female: 67.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.57% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 540,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 18,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.3%
Male: 83.3%
Female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Brazil - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
Conventional short form: Brazil
Local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
Local short form: Brasil

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre Alagoas Amapa Amazonas Bahia Ceara Distrito Federal* Espirito Santo Goias Maranhao Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Minas Gerais Para Paraiba Parana Pernambuco Piaui Rio de Janeiro Rio Grande do Norte Rio Grande do Sul Rondonia Roraima Santa Catarina Sao Paulo Sergipe Tocantins

Dependent areas

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)
Election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president; percent of vote - 53%

Legislative branch
Elections: Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)
Election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2, PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB 19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Jader BARBALHO president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Teotonio VILELA Filno]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Sergio Roberto Gomes SOUZA chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN president]; Liberal Party or PL [Francisco Teixeira de OLIVEIRA]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Ciro GOMEZ president]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU president]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA
In the us chancery: 3,006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 238-2,700
In the us fax: [1] (202) 238-2,827
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony S. HARRINGTON
From the us embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70,403-900, Brasilia
From the us mailing address: Unit 3,500, APO AA 34,030
From the us telephone: [55] (061) 321-7,272
From the us fax: [55] (061) 225-9,136
From the us consulates general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
From the us consulates: Recife

Flag descriptionflag of Brazil: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Brazil - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural mining manufacturing and service sectors Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. In the late eighties and early nineties high inflation hindered economic activity and investment. 'The Real Plan' instituted in the spring of 1994 sought to break inflationary expectations by pegging the real to the US dollar. Inflation was brought down to single digit annual figures but not fast enough to avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation during the transition phase of the 'Real Plan'. This appreciation meant that Brazilian goods were now more expensive relative to goods from other countries which contributed to large current account deficits. However no shortage of foreign currency ensued because of the financial community's renewed interest in Brazilian markets as inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis of the eighties faded from memory. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999 the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 that investors had expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998. Brazil's debt to GDP ratio for 1999 beat the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil will maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with a floating currency. The economy continued to recover in 2000 with inflation remaining in the single digits and expected growth for 2001 of 4.5%. Foreign direct investment set a record of more than $30 billion in 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.2% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 9%
Industry: 29%
Services: 62% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee soybeans wheat rice corn sugarcane cocoa citrus; beef

Industries: textiles shoes chemicals cement lumber iron ore tin steel aircraft motor vehicles and parts other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 79 million (1999 est.)
By occupation services: 53.2%
By occupation agriculture: 23.1%
By occupation industry: 23.7%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1%
Highest 10: 47.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $151 billion
Expenditures: $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36 billion (1998)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 6% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $55.1 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: manufactures iron ore soybeans footwear coffee
Partners: US 23% Argentina 11% Germany 5% Netherlands 5% Japan 5% (1999)

Imports: $55.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment chemical products oil electricity
Partners: US 24% Argentina 12% Germany 10% Japan 5% Italy 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $232 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Brazil - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 337.44 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 5.28%
By source hydro: 90.66%
By source nuclear: 1.12%
By source other: 2.94% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 353.674 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports
Note: supplied by Paraguay (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Brazil - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: good working system
Domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
International: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .br

Internet users: 8.65 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Brazil - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.9% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Brazil - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3,264 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 570
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 21
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 141
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 370
With paved runways under 914 m: 33 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 2,694
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 68
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1,279
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1,347 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 570
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 21
15-24 to 2437 m: 141
914 to 1523 m: 370
Under 914 m: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2,694
15-24 to 2437 m: 68
914 to 1523 m: 1,279
Under 914 m: 1,347 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural gas 4,246 km (1998)

Total: 30,539 km (2,129 km electrified); note - excludes urban rail
Broad gauge: 5,679 km 1.600-m gauge (1199 km electrified)
Standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 24,666 km 1.000-m gauge (930 km electrified)
Dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (1999 est.)


Waterways: 50,000 km

Merchant marine
Total: 171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,788,999 GRT/6,067,314 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 33, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, combination ore/oil 9, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 56, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Brazil - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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