Statistical information Burundi 2001Burundi

Map of Burundi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Burundi in the World
Burundi in the World


Burundi - Introduction 2001
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Background: Between 1993 and 2000 wide-spread often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi created hundreds of thousands of refugees and left tens of thousands dead. Although some refugees have returned from neighboring countries continued ethnic strife has forced many others to flee. Burundian troops seeking to secure their borders have intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Burundi - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Africa east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 27,830 km²
Land: 25,650 km²
Water: 2,180 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 974 km
Border countries: (3) Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km; , Rwanda 290 km; , Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous dropping to a plateau in east some plains

Extremes lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources: nickel uranium rare earth oxides peat cobalt copper platinum (not yet exploited) vanadium arable land: hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 44%
Permanent crops: 9%
Permanent pastures: 36%
Forests and woodland: 3%
Other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding landslides drought

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

Burundi - People 2001
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 2.38% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Noun: Burundian
Adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85% Tutsi (Hamitic) 14% Twa (Pygmy) 1% Europeans 3,000 South Asians 2000

Languages: Kirundi (official) French (official) Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62% Protestant 5%) indigenous beliefs 23% Muslim 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 46.82% (male 1,472,618; female 1,441,548)
15-64 years: 50.37% (male 1,541,131; female 1,593,743)
65 years and over: 2.81% (male 71,984; female 102,873) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.13 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.36 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 70.74 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 46.06 years
Male: 45.15 years
Female: 46.99 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 11.32% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 360,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 39,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 35.3%
Male: 49.3%
Female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Burundi - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
Conventional short form: Burundi
Local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
Local short form: Burundi
Former: Urundi

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces; Bubanza Bujumbura Bururi Cankuzo Cibitoke Gitega Karuzi Kayanza Kirundo Makamba Muramvya Muyinga Mwaro Ngozi Rutana Ruyigi

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
Elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25 July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)
Election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, various other parties 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders
Note: A multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZENZIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas NDIKUMANA
In the us chancery: Suite 212, 2,233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-2,574
In the us fax: [1] (202) 342-2,578
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES
From the us embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
From the us mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
From the us telephone: [257] 223,454
From the us fax: [257] 222,926

Flag descriptionflag of Burundi: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above two stars below)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Burundi - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Burundi is a landlocked resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Only one in four children go to school and one in nine adults has HIV/AIDS. Foods medicines and electricity remain in short supply.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 50%
Industry: 18%
Services: 32% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee cotton tea corn sorghum sweet potatoes bananas manioc (tapioca); beef milk hides

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets shoes soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million
By occupation: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3.4%
Highest 10: 26.6% (1992)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $125 million
Expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 22% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $32 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: coffee tea sugar cotton hides
Partners: Germany 17% Belgium 14% US 8% France 6% Switzerland 4% (1999)

Imports: $110 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: capital goods petroleum products foodstuffs
Partners: Belgium 20% Zambia 11% Kenya 8% South Africa 5% France 4% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.12 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Burundi francs per US dollar - 782.36 (January 2001) 720.67 (2000) 563.56 (1999) 477.77 (1998) 352.35 (1997) 302.75 (1996)

Burundi - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 141 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 0.71%
By source hydro: 99.29%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 160.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports
Note: supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Burundi - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 619 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: primitive system
Domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .bi

Internet users: 2000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Burundi - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $57 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 6.1% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Burundi - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 3
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
Over 3047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 3
914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Railways: 0 km


Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Burundi - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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