Statistical information Canada 2001Canada

Map of Canada | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Canada - Introduction 2001
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec with its French-speaking residents and unique culture to the remainder of the country.


Canada - Geography 2001
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Location: Northern North America bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N 95 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total: 9,976,140 km²
Land: 9,220,970 km²
Water: 755,170 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries
Total: 8,893 km
Border countries: (1) US 8,893 km; (includes 2,477 km

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore nickel zinc copper gold lead molybdenum potash silver fish timber wildlife coal petroleum natural gas hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 3%
Forests and woodland: 54%
Other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic Pacific and North American interior and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Geography
Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US/Canada border


Canada - People 2001
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Population: 31,592,805 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.99% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Canadian
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28% French origin 23% other European 15% Amerindian 2% other mostly Asian African Arab 6% mixed background 26%

Languages: English 59.3% (official) French 23.2% (official) other 17.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42% Protestant 40% other 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.95% (male 3,067,102; female 2,918,839)
15-64 years: 68.28% (male 10,846,151; female 10,725,800)
65 years and over: 12.77% (male 1,715,071; female 2,319,842) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.99% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.21 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.47 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.13 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural industrial mining and forestry activities
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.02 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.56 years
Male: 76.16 years
Female: 83.13 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 49,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 400 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97% (1986 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Canada - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland Northwest Territories* Nova Scotia Nunavut* Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day/Canada Day 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law except in Quebec where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993)
Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch
Elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party as of January 2001 - Liberal Party 42%, Canadian Alliance 22%, Bloc Quebecois 13%, New Democratic Party 4%, Progressive Conservative Party 4%; seats by party as of January 2001 - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal Court of Queens Bench Superior Court Supreme Court and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stockwell DAY]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Joe CLARK]

International organization participation: ABEDA ACCT AfDB APEC ARF (dialogue partner) AsDB ASEAN (dialogue partner) Australia Group BIS C CCC CDB (non-regional) CE (observer) EAPC EBRD ECE ECLAC ESA (cooperating state) FAO G- 7 G-10 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURCA MIPONUH MONUC NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS OECD OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNDOF UNESCO UNFICYP UNHCR UNIKOM UNMEE UNMIBH UNMIK UNMOP UNTAET UNTSO UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KERGIN
In the us chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,001
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
In the us fax: [1] (202) 682-7,726
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
In the us consulates: Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon D. GIFFIN
From the us embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 5,000, Ogdensburg, NY 13,669-0430
From the us telephone: [1] (613) 238-5,335, 4,470
From the us fax: [1] (613) 238-5,720
From the us consulates general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: three vertical bands of red (hoist side) white (double width square) and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Canada - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: As an affluent high-tech industrial society Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system pattern of production and high living standards. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing mining and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment is falling and government budget surpluses are being partially devoted to reducing the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) have touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. With its great natural resources skilled labor force and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas which has been raising the possibility of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professional persons lured by higher pay lower taxes and the immense high-tech infrastructure.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3%
Industry: 31%
Services: 66% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley oilseed tobacco fruits vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals food products wood and paper products transportation equipment chemicals fish products petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 16.1 million (2000)
By occupation: services 74% manufacturing 15% construction 5% agriculture 3% other 3% (2000)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 6.8% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.8%
Highest 10: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $126.1 billion
Expenditures: $125.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.8 billion (2000)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2.6% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $272.3 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: motor vehicles and parts newsprint wood pulp timber crude petroleum machinery natural gas aluminum telecommunications equipment electricity
Partners: US 86% Japan 3% UK Germany South Korea Netherlands China (1999)

Imports: $238.2 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment crude oil chemicals motor vehicles and parts durable consumer goods electricity
Partners: US 76% Japan 3% UK Germany France Mexico Taiwan South Korea (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.9 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.5032 (January 2001) 1.4851 (2000) 1.4857 (1999) 1.4835 (1998) 1.3846 (1997) 1.3635 (1996)


Canada - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 567.193 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 26.38%
By source hydro: 60%
By source nuclear: 12.31%
By source other: 1.31% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 497.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 42.911 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 12.953 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Canada - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4.207 million (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
International: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ca

Internet users: 13.28 million (1999)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Canada - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $7.5 billion (FY00/01)
Percent of gdp: 1.3% (FY00/01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Canada - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1417 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 517
With paved runways over 3047 m: 18
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 151
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 244
With paved runways under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 900
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 74
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 362
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 464 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 517
Over 3047 m: 18
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 151
914 to 1523 m: 244
Under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 900
15-24 to 2437 m: 74
914 to 1523 m: 362
Under 914 m: 464 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 18 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Railways
Total: 36,114 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
Standard gauge: 36,114 km 1.435-m gauge (156 km electrified) (1998)

Roadways

Waterways: 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Merchant marine
Total: 121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,767,259 GRT/2,633,290 DWT
Ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 67, cargo 13, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 17, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Canada - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance Beaufort Sea Strait of Juan de Fuca Machias Seal Island)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Sightseeing Pass


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