Statistical information Comoros 2001Comoros

Map of Comoros | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Comoros in the World
Comoros in the World


Comoros - Introduction 2001
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Background: Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997 the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In 1999 military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He has pledged to resolve the secessionist crisis through the 2000 Fomboni Accord a confederal arrangement that the Organization of African Unity has yet to recognize.

Comoros - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Africa group of islands in the Mozambique Channel about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S 44 15 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 2,170 km²
Land: 2,170 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 35%
Permanent crops: 10%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 18%
Other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

Comoros - People 2001
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Population: 596,202 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Comoran
Adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote Cafre Makoa Oimatsaha Sakalava

Languages: Arabic (official) French (official) Comoran (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98% Roman Catholic 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.81% (male 127,955; female 127,267)
15-64 years: 54.26% (male 159,560; female 163,949)
65 years and over: 2.93% (male 8,326; female 9,145) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 39.52 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.35 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 84.07 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 60.41 years
Male: 58.2 years
Female: 62.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.32 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 57.3%
Male: 64.2%
Female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Comoros - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Conventional short form: Comoros
Local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
Local short form: Comores

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja) Anjouan (Nzwani) and Moheli (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities named Domoni Fomboni Moroni and Moutsamoudou

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 6 May 1999); note - the interim government of President Tajiddine Ben Said MASSOUNDE, which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon the death of President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a bloodless coup on 30 April 1999
Head of government: Prime Minister Hamada MADI (since late November 2000)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
Note: President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the coup; but elections, promised for spring 2000, were not held
Election results: results of the last presidential election before the coup were: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent of vote - 64.3%

Legislative branch
Elections: Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to be held NA)
Election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1
Note: the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in opposition, but if no party accomplishes that, the second most successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December 1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president two members elected by the Federal Assembly one elected by the Council of each island and others are former presidents of the republic)

Political parties and leaders: Front National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED Ahmed ABOUBACAR Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the government) [Ali Bazi SELIM]

International organization participation: ACCT ACP AfDB AFESD AL CCC ECA FAO FZ G-77 IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS (associate) ILO IMF InOC Intelsat Interpol IOC ISO (subscriber) ITU NAM OAU OIC OPCW UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WHO WMO WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Deputy Permanent Representative Mahmoud Mohamed ABOUD (acting)
In the us chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10,022
In the us telephone: [1] (212) 972-8,010
In the us fax: [1] (212) 983-4,712
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag descriptionflag of Comoros: green with a white crescent in the center of the field its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent stars and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali Njazidja Nzwani and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France but claimed by Comoros); the design the most recent of several is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Comoros - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest countries Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links a young and rapidly increasing population and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity high unemployment and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture including fishing hunting and forestry is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP employs 80% of the labor force and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice the main staple accounts for the bulk of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises to improve health services to diversify exports to promote tourism and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 40%
Industry: 4%
Services: 56% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: vanilla cloves perfume essences copra coconuts bananas cassava (tapioca)

Industries: tourism perfume distillation textiles furniture jewelry construction materials soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)
By occupation: agriculture 80%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $48 million
Expenditures: $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.5% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.9 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: vanilla ylang-ylang cloves perfume oil copra
Partners: France 50% Germany 25% (1998)

Imports: $55.1 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: rice and other foodstuffs consumer goods; petroleum products cement transport equipment
Partners: France 38% Pakistan 13% South Africa 8% Kenya 8% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $197 million (1997 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the French franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January 1999, the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro

Comoros - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 17 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 88.24%
By source hydro: 11.76%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 15.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Comoros - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
General assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations
Domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
International: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .km

Internet users: 800 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Comoros - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Comoros - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways



Railways: 0 km


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,122 GRT/29,817 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 2 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Comoros - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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