Statistical information Cuba 2001Cuba

Map of Cuba | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Cuba in the World
Cuba in the World


Cuba - Introduction 2001
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Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together since. Cuba's communist revolution with Soviet support was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s 70s and 80s. The country is now slowly recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Havana portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts alien smugglers or falsified visas - is a continuing problem. Some 3,000 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard interdicted only about 35% of these.

Cuba - Geography 2001
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Location: Caribbean island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N 80 00 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Total: 110,860 km²
Land: 110,860 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries
Total: 29 km
Border countries: (1) US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
Note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

Extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt nickel iron ore copper manganese salt timber silica petroleum arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 24%
Permanent crops: 7%
Permanent pastures: 27%
Forests and woodland: 24%
Other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common

Note: largest country in Caribbean

Cuba - People 2001
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Population: 11,184,023 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.37% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Cuban
Adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51% white 37% black 11% Chinese 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants Jehovah's Witnesses Jews and Santeria are also represented

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20.99% (male 1,205,159; female 1,142,070)
15-64 years: 69.14% (male 3,876,432; female 3,855,878)
65 years and over: 9.87% (male 511,589; female 592,895) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.37% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.36 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation
International agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.39 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.41 years
Male: 74.02 years
Female: 78.94 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.03% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 1950 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 120 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.7%
Male: 96.2%
Female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Cuba - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
Conventional short form: Cuba
Local long form: Republica de Cuba
Local short form: Cuba

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey Ciego de Avila Cienfuegos Ciudad de La Habana Granma Guantanamo Holguin Isla de la Juventud* La Habana Las Tunas Matanzas Pinar del Rio Sancti Spiritus Santiago de Cuba Villa Clara

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day 10 October (1868); note - 10 October 1868 is the date of independence from Spain 20 May 1902 is the date of independence from US administration

Constitution: 24 February 1976 amended July 1992

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly
Elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election unscheduled)
Election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)
Election results: percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president vice president and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC ECLAC FAO G-77 IAEA ICAO ICC ICRM IFAD IFRCS IHO ILO IMO Inmarsat Intelsat (nonsignatory user) Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU LAES LAIA NAM OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962) OPCW PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy headed by Principal Officer Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section Swiss Embassy 2,630 16th Street NW Washington DC 20,009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8,518
From the us: none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy headed by Principal Officer Vicki HUDDLESTON; address: USINT Swiss Embassy Calzada between L and M Streets Vedado Seccion Havana; telephone: 33-3,551 through 3,559 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3,700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag descriptionflag of Cuba: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Cuba - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: The government the primary player in the economy has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food consumer goods and services but prioritizing of political control makes extensive reforms unlikely. Living standards for the average Cuban without access to dollars remain at a depressed level compared with 1990. The liberalized farmers' markets introduced in 1994 sell above-quota production at market prices expand legal consumption alternatives and reduce black market prices. Income taxes and increased regulations introduced since 1996 have sharply reduced the number of legally self-employed from a high of 208,000 in January 1996. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during 1989-93 as a result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The slide in GDP came to a halt in 1994 when Cuba reported growth in GDP of 0.7%. Cuba reported that GDP increased by 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996 before slowing down in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. Growth recovered with a 6.2% increase in GDP in 1999 and a 5.6% increase in 2000. Much of Cuba's recovery can be attributed to tourism revenues and foreign investment. Growth in 2001 should continue at the same level as the government balances the need for economic loosening against its concern for firm political control.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7%
Industry: 37%
Services: 56% (1998 est.)

Agriculture products: sugar tobacco citrus coffee rice potatoes beans; livestock

Industries: sugar petroleum tobacco chemicals construction services nickel steel cement agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force
Note: state sector 75%, non-state sector 25% (1998)
By occupation agriculture: 25%
By occupation industry: 24%
By occupation services: 51% (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $13.5 billion
Expenditures: $14.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.3% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: sugar nickel tobacco fish medical products citrus coffee
Partners: Russia 23% Netherlands 23% Canada 13% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: petroleum food machinery chemicals semifinished goods transport equipment consumer goods
Partners: Spain 18% Venezuela 13% Canada 8% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $11.1 billion (convertible currency 1999); another $15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible official rate for international transactions pegged to the US dollar); convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar per 22 pesos by the Government of Cuba (January 2001)

Cuba - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14.358 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 94.2%
By source hydro: 0.7%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 5.1% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 13.353 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Cuba - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2,994 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, Soviet-built); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .cu

Internet users: 60,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Cuba - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Cuba - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 171 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 77
With paved runways over 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 16
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 10
With paved runways under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 94
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 31
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 63 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 77
Over 3047 m: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 16
914 to 1523 m: 10
Under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 94
914 to 1523 m: 31
Under 914 m: 63 (2000 est.)



Total: 11,969 km
Standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge (147 km electrified)
Note: in addition to the 4,807 km of standard gauge track in public use, 7,162 km of track is in private use by sugar plantations; about 90% of the private use track is standard gauge and the rest is narrow gauge (2000)


Waterways: 240 km

Merchant marine
Total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 54,821 GRT/78,062 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 5 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Cuba - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Economy Bookings

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