Statistical information Democratic Republic of the Congo 2001Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Congo

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Democratic Republic of the Congo - Introduction 2001
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Background: Since 1994 the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC; formerly called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war touched off by a massive inflow of refugees from the fighting in Rwanda and Burundi. The government of former president MOBUTU Sese Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997; his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and Uganda-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe Angola Namibia Chad and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999 but sporadic fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state. The new president quickly began overtures to end the war.


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Africa northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N 25 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 2,345,410 km²
Land: 2,267,600 km²
Water: 77,810 km²
Comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total: 10,744 km
Border countries: (9) Angola 2,511 km; , Burundi 233 km; , Central African Republic 1,577 km; , Republic of the Congo 2,410 km; , Rwanda 217 km; , Sudan 628 km; , Tanzania 473 km; , Uganda 765 km; , Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt copper cadmium petroleum industrial and gem diamonds gold silver zinc manganese tin germanium uranium radium bauxite iron ore coal hydropower timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 77%
Other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Geography
Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands


Democratic Republic of the Congo - People 2001
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Population
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 3.1% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo Luba Kongo (all Bantu) and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Languages: French (official) Lingala (a lingua franca trade language) Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili) Kikongo Tshiluba

Religions: Roman Catholic 50% Protestant 20% Kimbanguist 10% Muslim 10% other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.24% (male 12,988,488; female 12,878,232)
15-64 years: 49.21% (male 12,931,886; female 13,459,109)
65 years and over: 2.55% (male 575,113; female 791,890) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 46.02 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15.15 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate
Note: one million refugees fled into Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo or DROC) in 1994 to escape the fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis; fighting in the DROC between rebels and government forces in October 1996 caused 875,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997; an additional 173,000 Rwandan refugees disappeared in early 1997 and are assumed to have been killed by Zairian forces; fighting between the Congolese government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese displaced in DROC and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding countries

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation soil erosion and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country (most of those refugees were repatriated in November and December 1996)
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male/female
Total population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 99.88 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 48.94 years
Male: 46.96 years
Female: 50.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.84 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 5.07% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 1.1 million (1999 est.)
Deaths: 95,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
Total population: 77.3%
Male: 86.6%
Female: 67.7% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Conventional short form: none
Local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
Local short form: none
Former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
Abbreviation: DROC

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces singular - province) and one city* (ville); Bandundu Bas-Congo Equateur Kasai-Occidental Kasai-Oriental Katanga Kinshasa* Maniema Nord-Kivu Orientale Sud-Kivu

Dependent areas

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Independence Day 30 June (1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978 amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994; in November 1998 a draft constitution was approved by former President Laurent KABILA but it has not been ratified by a national referendum

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA after his assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA after his assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he is both chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president
Elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997); formerly, the prime minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - elections were not held in 1991 as called for by the constitution
Election results: results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without opposition
Note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was president from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May 1997 when his government was overthrown militarily by Laurent Desire KABILA, who immediately assumed governing authority; KABILA pledged to hold elections by April 1999, but in December 1998 announced that elections would be postponed until all foreign military forces attempting to topple the government had withdrawn from the country; KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and was succeeded by his son Joseph KABILA

Legislative branch
Elections: NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly were appointed by former President KABILA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR [leader NA]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI [Kouyoumba MUCHULI Mulembe]

International organization participation: ACCT ACP AfDB CCC CEEAC CEPGL ECA FAO G-19 G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU NAM OAU OPCW PCA SADC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU
In the us chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,690, 7,691
In the us fax: [1] (202) 234-2,609
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
From the us embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
From the us mailing address: Unit 31,550, APO AE 9,828
From the us telephone: [243] (12) 21,804, 21,807
From the us fax: [243] (88) 43,805

Flag descriptionflag of Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Congo: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. The new government instituted a tight fiscal policy that initially curbed inflation and currency depreciation but these small gains were quickly reversed when the foreign-backed rebellion in the eastern part of the country began in August 1998. The war has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and has increased external debt. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict and because of increased government harassment and restrictions. The war has intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework corruption raging inflation and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan but associated reforms are on hold.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -15% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 58%
Industry: 17%
Services: 25% (1997 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee sugar palm oil rubber tea quinine cassava (tapioca) palm oil bananas root crops corn fruits; wood products

Industries: mining (diamonds copper zinc) mineral processing consumer products (including textiles footwear cigarettes processed foods and beverages) cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 14.51 million (1993 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 65%
By occupation industry: 16%
By occupation services: 19% (1991 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $269 million
Expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 540% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $960 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: diamonds copper coffee cobalt crude oil
Partners: Benelux 62% US 18% South Africa Finland Italy (1999)

Imports: $660 million (c.i.f. 2000 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs mining and other machinery transport equipment fuels
Partners: South Africa 28% Benelux 14% Nigeria 9% Kenya 7% China (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $13 billion (1998 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: on 30 June 1998 the Congolese franc was introduced, replacing the new zaire


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.268 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 2.05%
By source hydro: 97.95%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 4.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 404 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 55 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 8,900 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .cd

Internet users: 1500 (1999)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $250 million (FY97)
Percent of gdp: 4.6% (FY97)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 232 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 24
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 15
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 208
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 20
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 96
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 24
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 15
914 to 1523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 208
15-24 to 2437 m: 20
914 to 1523 m: 96
Under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Railways
Total: 5,138 km (1995)
Note: severely reduced route-distance in use because of damage to facilities by civil strife
Narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2000)

Roadways

Waterways: 15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries and unconnected lakes)

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: the Democratic Republic of the Congo is in the grip of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from neighboring states with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel movements that occupy much of the eastern portion of the state; most of the Congo river boundary with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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