Statistical information Ecuador 2001Ecuador

Map of Ecuador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Ecuador in the World
Ecuador in the World

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Ecuador - Introduction 2001
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Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.


Ecuador - Geography 2001
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Location: Western South America bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S 77 30 W

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Total: 283,560 km²
Land: 276,840 km²
Water: 6,720 km²
Note: includes Galapagos Islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries
Total: 2,010 km
Border countries: (2) Colombia 590 km; , Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa) inter-Andean central highlands (sierra) and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum fish timber hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 5%
Permanent pastures: 18%
Forests and woodland: 56%
Other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes landslides volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Geography
Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world


Ecuador - People 2001
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Population: 13,183,978 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Ecuadorian
Adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65% Amerindian 25% Spanish and others 7% black 3%

Languages: Spanish (official) Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35.8% (male 2,398,801; female 2,320,537)
15-64 years: 59.81% (male 3,900,193; female 3,984,797)
65 years and over: 4.39% (male 269,372; female 310,278) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.99 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.44 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.55 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 34.08 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.33 years
Male: 68.52 years
Female: 74.28 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 19,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 1400 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90.1%
Male: 92%
Female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ecuador - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form: Ecuador
Local long form: Republica del Ecuador
Local short form: Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias singular - provincia); Azuay Bolivar Canar Carchi Chimborazo Cotopaxi El Oro Esmeraldas Galapagos Guayas Imbabura Loja Los Rios Manabi Morona-Santiago Napo Orellana Pastaza Pichincha Sucumbios Tungurahua Zamora-Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito) 10 August (1809)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65 optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: results of the last election prior to the coup were: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%
Note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January; National Congress then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Sixto DURAN Ballen]; Independent National Movement or MIN [leader NA]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Rafael PANDAM]; Popular Democracy or DP [Ramiro RIVERA]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [leader NA]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi president]

International organization participation: CAN CCC ECLAC FAO G-11 G-77 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU LAES LAIA NAM OAS OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
In the us chancery: 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-7,200
In the us fax: [1] (202) 667-3,482
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gwen C. CLARE
From the us embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
From the us mailing address: APO AA 34,039
From the us telephone: [593] (2) 562-890
From the us fax: [593] (2) 502-052
From the us consulates general: Guayaquil

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top double width) blue and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ecuador - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil bananas and shrimp fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996 but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. In recent years growth has been uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999 which eventually forced a desperate government to 'dollarize' the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency but did not stave off the ouster of the government. The new president Gustavo NOBOA has yet to complete negotiations for a long sought IMF accord. He will find it difficult to push through the reforms necessary to make 'dollarization' work in the long run.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 36%
Services: 50% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: bananas coffee cocoa rice potatoes manioc (tapioca) plantains sugarcane; cattle sheep pigs beef pork dairy products; balsa wood; fish shrimp

Industries: petroleum food processing textiles metal work paper products wood products chemicals plastics fishing lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation services: 45% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13%; note - widespread underemployment (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.2%
Highest 10: 33.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential privatizations)
Expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 96% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: petroleum bananas shrimp coffee cocoa cut flowers fish
Partners: US 37% Colombia 5% Italy 5% Chile 5% Peru 4% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment raw materials fuels; consumer goods
Partners: US 30% Colombia 13% Venezuela 6% Japan 5% Venezuela 6% Mexico 3% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $15 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: on 7 January 2000, the government passed a decree 'dollarizing' the economy; on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar is adopted as the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars


Ecuador - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10.065 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 29.51%
By source hydro: 70.49%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 9.386 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 25 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ecuador - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 160,061 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: NA
Domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ec

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ecuador - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 3.4% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ecuador - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 180 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 59
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 18
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 15
With paved runways under 914 m: 19 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 121
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 59
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 18
914 to 1523 m: 15
Under 914 m: 19 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 121
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1358 km

Railways
Total: 965 km
Narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Roadways

Waterways: 1500 km

Merchant marine
Total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,312 GRT/385,784 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Ecuador - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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