Statistical information Estonia 2001Estonia

Map of Estonia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Estonia in the World
Estonia in the World


Estonia - Introduction 2001
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Background: After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994 Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

Estonia - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N 26 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 45,226 km²
Land: 43,211 km²
Water: 2,015 km²
Note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries
Total: 633 km
Border countries: (2) Latvia 339 km; , Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: maritime wet moderate winters cool summers

Terrain: marshy lowlands

Extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite) peat phosphorite amber cambrian blue clay limestone dolomite arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 11%
Forests and woodland: 44%
Other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 km² (1996 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring


Estonia - People 2001
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Population: 1,423,316 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: -0.55% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 8.9% (1995 est.)

Noun: Estonian
Adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1% Russian 28.1% Ukrainian 2.5% Byelorussian 1.5% Finn 1% other 1.8% (1998)

Languages: Estonian (official) Russian Ukrainian English Finnish other

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran Russian Orthodox Estonian Orthodox Baptist Methodist Seventh-Day Adventist Roman Catholic Pentecostal Word of Life Jewish

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 17.08% (male 123,997; female 119,166)
15-64 years: 68.14% (male 466,823; female 503,032)
65 years and over: 14.78% (male 68,802; female 141,496) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.55% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 8.7 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.48 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1400 natural and manmade lakes the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male/female
Total population: 0.86 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.62 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.73 years
Male: 63.72 years
Female: 76.05 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100% (1998 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
Conventional short form: Estonia
Local long form: Eesti Vabariik
Local short form: Eesti
Former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions
Note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia 6 September 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held August-September 1996 (next to be held in the fall of 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
Election results: Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6

Judicial branch: National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR chairman]; Christian People's Party [Aldo VINKEL]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOBEL chairman]; Estonian Democratic Party (formerly Estonian Blue Party) [Jaan LAAS]; Estonian Independence Party [leader NA]; Estonian National Democratic Party or ENDP [leader NA]; Estonian Pensioners and Families Party [Mai TREIAL]; Estonian Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN]; Estonian Republican Party [leader NA]; Estonian Social-Democratic Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU]; Estonian Rural People's Union (1999 merger of Estonian Country People's Party and the Estonian Rural Union) [Arvo SIRENDI]; Party of Consolidation Today [leader NA]; People's Party Moderates (1999 merger of People's Party and Moderates) [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS chairman]; Russian Party in Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV]; Russian Unity Party [Igor SEDASHEV]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV chairman]

International organization participation: BIS CBSS CCC CE EAPC EBRD ECE EU (applicant) FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO (correspondent) ITU OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNMIBH UNMIK UNTSO UPU WEU (associate partner) WHO WIPO WMO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON
In the us chancery: 2,131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
In the us fax: [1] (202) 588-0108
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Melissa WELLS
From the us embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15,099 Tallinn
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [372] 668-8,100
From the us fax: [372] 668-8,134

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top) black and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: In 2000 Estonia rebounded from the Russian financial crisis by scaling back its budget and reorienting trade away from Russian markets into EU member states. After GDP shrank 1.1% in 1999 the economy made a strong recovery in 2000 with growth estimated at 6.4% - the highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Estonia joined the World Trade Organization in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and continues its EU accession talks. For 2001 Estonians predict GDP to grow around 6% inflation of between 4.2%-5.3% and a balanced budget. Substantial gains were made in completing privatization of Estonia's few remaining large state-owned companies in 2000 and this momentum is expected to continue in 2001. Estonia hopes to join the EU during the next round of enlargement tentatively set for 2004.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.4% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.6%
Industry: 30.7%
Services: 65.7% (1999)

Agriculture products: potatoes fruits vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Industries: oil shale shipbuilding phosphates electric motors excavators cement furniture clothing textiles paper shoes apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 785,500 (1999 est.)
By occupation industry: 20%
By occupation agriculture: 11%
By occupation services: 69% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 8.9% (1995 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3.2%
Highest 10: 28.5% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.37 billion
Expenditures: $1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 4.1% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 24% wood products 20% textiles 17% food products 9% metals chemical products (1999)
Partners: Finland 19.4% Sweden 18.8% Russia 9.2% Latvia 8.7% Germany 7.5% US 2.5% (1999)

Imports: $4 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 31% chemical products 13% foodstuffs 11% metal products 8% textiles 8% (1999)
Partners: Finland 22.8% Russia 13.5% Sweden 9.3% Germany 9.3% Japan 4.7% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.6 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: krooni per US dollar - 16.663 (January 2001) 16.969 (2000) 14.678 (1999) 14.075 (1998) 13.882 (1997) 12.034 (1996); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Estonia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7.782 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 99.72%
By source hydro: 0.09%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0.19% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 6.807 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 530 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 100 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 475,000 (yearend 2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled subscriber requests
Domestic: local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks; intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)
International: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ee

Internet users: 309,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $70 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.2% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 32 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 8
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 24
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 7
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 8
2438 to 3047 m: 7
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 24
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 7
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines
Broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)


Waterways: 320 km (perennially navigable)

Merchant marine
Total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,460 GRT/219,727 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 19, combination bulk 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 6 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed nor ratified by Russia as of February 2001

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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