Statistical information Germany 2001Germany

Map of Germany | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Germany - Introduction 2001
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Background: As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic political and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US UK France and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations the EC and NATO while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999 Germany and 10 other EU countries formed a common European currency the euro.

Germany - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea between the Netherlands and Poland south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N 9 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 357,021 km²
Land: 349,223 km²
Water: 7,798 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries
Total: 3,618 km
Border countries: (9) Austria 784 km; , Belgium 167 km; , Czech Republic 646 km; , Denmark 68 km; , France 451 km; , Luxembourg 135 km; , Netherlands 577 km; , Poland 456 km; , Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate and marine; cool cloudy wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

Terrain: lowlands in north uplands in center Bavarian Alps in south

Extremes lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
Extremes highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources: iron ore coal potash timber lignite uranium copper natural gas salt nickel arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 33%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 15%
Forests and woodland: 31%
Other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,750 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding

Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

Germany - People 2001
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Population: 83,029,536 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.27% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: German
Adjective: German

Ethnic groups: German 91.5% Turkish 2.4% other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian Italian Russian Greek Polish Spanish)

Languages: German

Religions: Protestant 38% Roman Catholic 34% Muslim 1.7% unaffiliated or other 26.3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15.57% (male 6,635,328; female 6,289,994)
15-64 years: 67.82% (male 28,619,237; female 27,691,698)
65 years and over: 16.61% (male 5,336,664; female 8,456,615) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.16 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.42 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to define mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora Fauna and Habitat directive
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male/female
Total population: 0.96 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.71 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.61 years
Male: 74.47 years
Female: 80.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 37,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 600 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99% (1977 est.)
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Germany - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
Conventional short form: Germany
Local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Local short form: Deutschland
Former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Berlin

Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Thueringen

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK US USSR and later France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK US and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991

National holiday: Unity Day 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949 known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)
Head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)
Cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
Elections: president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held in the fall of 2002)
Election results: Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly - 52.7%

Legislative branch
Elections: Federal Assembly - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held by the fall of 2002); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
Election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%, CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%; seats by party - SPD 298, Alliance '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43, PDS 36; Federal Council - current composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 26, CDU-led states 28, grand coalitions 15

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Renate KUENAST and Fritz KUHN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT chairman]; note - Wolfgang GERHARDT will probably be replaced by Guido WESTERWELLE in May 2001; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gabi ZIMMER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER chairman]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
In the us chancery: 4,645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 298-8,141
In the us fax: [1] (202) 298-4,249
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
In the us consulates: Wellington (America Samoa)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM (was due to resign on 20 January 2001)
From the us embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10,117 Berlin
From the us mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 9,265
From the us telephone: [49] (30) 238-5,174
From the us fax: [49] (30) 238-6,290
From the us consulates general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

Flag descriptionflag of Germany: three equal horizontal bands of black (top) red and gold

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Germany - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Germany possesses the world's third most technologically powerful economy after the US and Japan but structural market rigidities - including the substantial non-wage costs of hiring new workers - have made unemployment a long-term not just a cyclical problem. Germany's aging population combined with high unemployment has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy remains a costly long-term problem with annual transfers from western Germany amounting to roughly $70 billion. Growth picked up to 3% in 2000 largely due to recovering global demand; newly passed business and income tax cuts are expected to keep growth strong in 2001. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are transforming the German economy to meet the challenges of European economic integration and globalization in general.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.2%
Industry: 30.4%
Services: 68.4% (1999)

Agriculture products: potatoes wheat barley sugar beets fruit cabbages; cattle pigs poultry

Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron steel coal cement chemicals machinery vehicles machine tools electronics food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2000)

Labor force: 40.5 million (1999 est.)
By occupation industry: 33.4%
By occupation agriculture: 2.8%
By occupation services: 63.8% (1999)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.9% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $996 billion
Expenditures: $1.036 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 2% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $578 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery vehicles chemicals metals and manufactures foodstuffs textiles
Partners: EU 55.3% (France 11.3% UK 8.3% Italy 7.3% Netherlands 6.3% Belgium/Luxembourg 5.1%) US 10.1% Japan 2.0% (1999)

Imports: $505 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery vehicles chemicals foodstuffs textiles metals
Partners: EU 52.2% (France 10.5% Netherlands 7.6% Italy 7.4% UK 6.9% Belgium/Luxembourg 5.6%) US 8.1% Japan 4.9% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001) 1.0854 (2000) 0.9386 (1999); deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69 (January 1999) 1.7597 (1998) 1.7341 (1997) 1.5048 (1996)

Germany - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 531.377 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 63.29%
By source hydro: 3.59%
By source nuclear: 30.3%
By source other: 2.82% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 495.181 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 39.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 40.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Germany - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 15.318 million (April 1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
Domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
International: satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 7 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .de

Internet users: 18 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Germany - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $32.8 billion (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Germany - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 613 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 322
With paved runways over 3047 m: 13
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 55
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 67
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 63
With paved runways under 914 m: 124 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 291
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 53
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 225 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 322
Over 3047 m: 13
2438 to 3047 m: 55
15-24 to 2437 m: 67
914 to 1523 m: 63
Under 914 m: 124 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 291
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 53
Under 914 m: 225 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 59 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km (1998)

Total: 40,826 km including at least 14,253 km electrified and 14,768 km double- or multiple-tracked (1998)
Note: since privatization in 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the tracks it owns; in addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own an approximate 3,000 km to 4,000 km of the total tracks


Note: major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)

Merchant marine
Total: 457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,414,724 GRT/7,952,776 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 169, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 243, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 7 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Germany - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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