Statistical information Greece 2001Greece

Map of Greece | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Greece in the World
Greece in the World

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Greece - Introduction 2001
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Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country lasted seven years. Democratic elections in 1974 and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992).


Greece - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Europe bordering the Aegean Sea Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N 22 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 131,940 km²
Land: 130,800 km²
Water: 1,140 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries
Total: 1,210 km
Border countries: (4) Albania 282 km; , Bulgaria 494 km; , Turkey 206 km; , The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 NM

Climate: temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources: bauxite lignite magnesite petroleum marble hydropower potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 19%
Permanent crops: 8%
Permanent pastures: 41%
Forests and woodland: 20%
Other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,140 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes

Geography
Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country possessing an archipelago of about 2000 islands


Greece - People 2001
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Population: 10,623,835 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.21% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Greek
Adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups
Note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Languages: Greek 99% (official) English French

Religions: Greek Orthodox 98% Muslim 1.3% other 0.7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 14.98% (male 820,219; female 771,466)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 3,580,535; female 3,569,755)
65 years and over: 17.72% (male 834,234; female 1,047,626) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.83 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.96 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; water pollution
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.38 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.59 years
Male: 76.03 years
Female: 81.32 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.33 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.16% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 8,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95%
Male: 98%
Female: 93% (1991 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Greece - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
Conventional short form: Greece
Local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
Local short form: Ellas or Ellada
Former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: parliamentary republic; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 51 prefectures (nomoi singular - nomos)and 1 autonomous region*; Ayion Oros* (Mt. Athos) Aitolia kai Akarnania Akhaia Argolis Arkadhia Arta Attiki Dhodhekanisos Drama Evritania Evros Evvoia Florina Fokis Fthiotis Grevena Ilia Imathia Ioannina Irakleion Kardhitsa Kastoria Kavala Kefallinia Kerkyra Khalkidhiki Khania Khios Kikladhes Kilkis Korinthia Kozani Lakonia Larisa Lasithi Lesvos Levkas Magnisia Messinia Pella Pieria Preveza Rethimni Rodhopi Samos Serrai Thesprotia Thessaloniki Trikala Voiotia Xanthi Zakinthos

Dependent areas

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day 25 March (1821)

Constitution: 11 June 1975; amended March 1986

Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil criminal and administrative courts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995)
Head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos SIMITIS (since 19 January 1996)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 8 February 2000 (next to be held by NA March 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Konstandinos STEPHANOPOULOS reelected president; percent of Parliament vote - 90%

Legislative branch
Elections: elections last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held by NA April 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PASOK 43.8%, ND 42.7%, KKE 5.5%, Coalition of the Left and Progress 3.2%; seats by party - PASOK 158, ND 125, KKE 11, Coalition of the Left and Progress 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Nikolaos KONSTANDOPOULOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Konstandinos SIMITIS]

International organization participation: Australia Group BIS BSEC CCC CE CERN EAPC EBRD ECE EIB EMU EU FAO G- 6 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU MINURSO NAM (guest) NATO NEA NSG OAS (observer) OECD OPCW OSCE PCA UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNHCR UNIDO UNIKOM UNMIBH UNOMIG UPU WEU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alexandros PHILON
In the us chancery: 2,221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-5,800
In the us fax: [1] (202) 939-5,824
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
In the us consulates: Atlanta, Houston, and New Orleans
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador R. Nicholas BURNS
From the us embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10,160 Athens
From the us mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 9,842-0108
From the us telephone: [30] (1) 721-2,951
From the us fax: [30] (1) 645-6,282
From the us consulates general: Thessaloniki

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Greece - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about half of GDP. Tourism is a key industry providing a large portion of GDP and foreign exchange earnings. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid equal to about 4% of GDP. The economy has improved steadily over the last few years as the government has tightened policy in the run-up to Greece's entry into the EU's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2001. In particular Greece has cut its budget deficit to below 1% of GDP and tightened monetary policy with the result that inflation fell from 20% in 1990 to 3.1% in 2000. Major challenges remaining include the reduction of unemployment and further restructuring of the economy including the privatization of some leading state enterprises. Growth 3.8% in 2000 may fall off to 3%-3.5% in 2001.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8.3%
Industry: 27.3%
Services: 64.4% (1998)

Agriculture products: wheat corn barley sugar beets olives tomatoes wine tobacco potatoes; beef dairy products

Industries: tourism; food and tobacco processing textiles; chemicals metal products; mining petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.32 million (1999 est.)
By occupation industry: 21%
By occupation agriculture: 20%
By occupation services: 59% (2000 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.3% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 3%
Highest 10: 25.3% (1993 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $45 billion
Expenditures: $47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 3.1% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: manufactured goods food and beverages petroleum products
Partners: EU 49% (Germany 15% Italy 13% UK 6%) US 6% (1999)

Imports: $33.9 billion (c.i.f. 2000)
Commodities: manufactured goods foodstuffs fuels chemicals
Partners: EU 66% (Italy 15% Germany 15% France 9% UK 6%) (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $57 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drachmae per US dollar - 380.21 (December 2000) 365.40 (2000) 305.65 (1999) 295.53 (1998) 273.06 (1997) 240.71 (1996)


Greece - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 46.432 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 89.6%
By source hydro: 9.72%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0.68% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 43.343 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 1.65 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1.811 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Greece - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 937,700 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
Domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
International: tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .gr

Internet users: 1.33 million (1999)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Greece - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $6.12 billion (FY99/00 est.)
Percent of gdp: 4.91% (FY99/00 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Greece - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 81 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 65
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 19
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 16
With paved runways under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 16
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 65
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 19
914 to 1523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 16
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

Railways
Total: 2,548 km
Standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (36 km electrified; 23 km double track)
Narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (a rack-type railway for steep grades)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: system consists of three coastal canals including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Peiraiefs (Piraeus) by 325 km; there are also three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine
Total: 780 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,564,988 GRT/44,761,916 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 272, cargo 55, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 51, liquefied gas 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 255, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 20, short-sea passenger 63, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 1
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: South Korea 1, UK 4 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Greece - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: complex maritime air and territorial disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over its name

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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