Statistical information Kazakhstan 2001Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World


Kazakhstan - Introduction 2001
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Background: Native Kazakhs a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural 'Virgin Lands' program Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; and continuing to strengthen relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.

Kazakhstan - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Asia northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N 68 00 E

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States

Total: 2,717,300 km²
Land: 2,669,800 km²
Water: 47,500 km²
Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 12,012 km
Border countries: (5) China 1,533 km; , Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km; , Russia 6,846 km; , Turkmenistan 379 km; , Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea now split into two bodies of water (1070 km) and the Caspian Sea (1894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental cold winters and hot summers arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia

Extremes lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
Extremes highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum natural gas coal iron ore manganese chrome ore nickel cobalt copper molybdenum lead zinc bauxite gold uranium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 11%
Permanent pastures: 57%
Forests and woodland: 4%
Other: 16% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 22,000 km² (1996 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south mudslides around Almaty

Note: landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 km² of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome

Kazakhstan - People 2001
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Population: 16,731,303 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.03% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)

Noun: Kazakhstani
Adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4% Russian 30% Ukrainian 3.7% Uzbek 2.5% German 2.4% Uighur 1.4% other 6.6% (1999 census)

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq state language) 40% Russian (official used in everyday business) 66%

Religions: Muslim 47% Russian Orthodox 44% Protestant 2% other 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 26.73% (male 2,271,866; female 2,200,078)
15-64 years: 66.03% (male 5,358,535; female 5,688,550)
65 years and over: 7.24% (male 412,761; female 799,513) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.03% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.3 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.61 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.43 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male/female
Total population: 0.93 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59.17 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.29 years
Male: 57.87 years
Female: 68.97 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 3,500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 96% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kazakhstan - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: none
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Astana; note - the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998

Administrative divisions
Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 km² enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonyr, formerly Leninsk)

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Republic Day 25 October (1990)

Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
Head of government: Prime Minister Kazymzhomart TOKAYEV (since 2 October 1999)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 10 January 1999, a year before it was previously scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's previous term had been extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 81.7%, Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN 12.1%, Gani KASYMOV 4.7%, other 1.5%
Note: President NAZARBAYEV expanded his presidential powers by decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch
Elections: Senate - (indirect) last held 17 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2001); Majilis - last held 10 and 24 October and 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; 16 seats up for election in 1999, candidates nominated by local councils; Majilis - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Otan 23, Civic Party 13, Communist Party 3, Agrarian Party 3, People's Cooperative Party 1, independents 34; note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal enterprises and other pro-government institutions

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Romin MADENOV]; Alash [Soverkazhy AKATAYEV]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK Murat AUEZOV and Galym ABILSIITOV cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV first secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN first secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces [Nurbulat MASANOV Deputy Chairman of the Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan (RNPK); Amirzhan KOSANOV RNPK activist; Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM Orleu Movement; cochairmen]; Labor and Worker's Movement [Madel ISMAILOV chairman]; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan [Sergei TERESCHENKO chairman]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan of NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV chairman]; People's Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV]; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan or RNPK [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]

International organization participation: AsDB CCC CIS EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO IDA IDB IFAD IFC ILO IMF IMO Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU NAM (observer) OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OSCE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kanat SAUDABAYEV
In the us chancery: 1401 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 232-5,488
In the us fax: [1] (202) 232-5,845
In the us consulates: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard H. JONES
From the us embassy: 99/97A Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480,091
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Almaty, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,521-7,030
From the us telephone: [7] (3,272) 63-39-21, 50-76-23, 50-76-27 (emergency number)
From the us fax: [7] (3,272) 63-38-83, 50-76-24

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a 'national ornamentation' in gold

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kazakhstan - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Kazakhstan the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also is a large agricultural - livestock and grain - producer. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment tractors agricultural machinery and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy again turned downward in 1998 with a 2% decline in GDP due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. The recovery of international oil prices in 1999 combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest pulled the economy out of recession in 2000. Astana has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 10.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 10%
Industry: 30%
Services: 60% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: grain (mostly spring wheat) cotton; wool livestock

Industries: oil coal iron ore manganese chromite lead zinc copper titanium bauxite gold silver phosphates sulfur iron and steel nonferrous metal tractors and other agricultural machinery electric motors construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 14.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 8.8 million (1997)
By occupation industry: 27%
By occupation agriculture: 23%
By occupation services: 50% (1996)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.7%
Highest 10: 26.3% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $3.1 billion
Expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 13.4% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: oil 40% ferrous and nonferrous metals machinery chemicals grain wool meat coal
Partners: EU 23% Russia 20% China 8% (1999)

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and parts industrial materials oil and gas vehicles
Partners: Russia 37% US Uzbekistan Turkey UK Germany Ukraine South Korea (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $12.5 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: tenge per US dollar - 145.09 (January 2001) 142.13 (2000) 119.52 (1999) 78.30 (1998) 75.44 (1997) 67.30 (1996)

Kazakhstan - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 44.36 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 87.12%
By source hydro: 12.65%
By source nuclear: 0.23%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 44.132 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 200 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 3.077 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kazakhstan - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 11,202 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated
Domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan
International: international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay; with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .kz

Internet users: 70,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kazakhstan - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $322 million (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1.5% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 449 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 28
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 14
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 421
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 11
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 18
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 45
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 101
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 246 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 28
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 14
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
Under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 421
Over 3047 m: 11
2438 to 3047 m: 18
15-24 to 2437 m: 45
914 to 1523 m: 101
Under 914 m: 246 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)

Total: 14,400 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
Broad gauge: 14,400 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1997)


Note: on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya) and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan Iran Kazakhstan Russia and Turkmenistan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Trusted Tours

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