Statistical information Libya 2001Libya

Map of Libya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Libya - Introduction 2001
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Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed e.g. the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. Those sanctions were suspended in April 1999.

Libya - Geography 2001
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Location: Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N 17 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 1,759,540 km²
Land: 1,759,540 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 4,383 km
Border countries: (6) Algeria 982 km; , Chad 1,055 km; , Egypt 1,150 km; , Niger 354 km; , Sudan 383 km; , Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1770 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 NM Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren flat to undulating plains plateaus depressions

Extremes lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
Extremes highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas gypsum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 8%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot dry dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms sandstorms


Libya - People 2001
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Note: includes 662,669 non-nationals, of which an estimated 500,000 or more are Africans living in Libya (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 2.42% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Libyan
Adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97% Greeks Maltese Italians Egyptians Pakistanis Turks Indians Tunisians

Languages: Arabic Italian English all are widely understood in the major cities

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35.41% (male 947,645; female 907,854)
15-64 years: 60.64% (male 1,645,085; female 1,533,066)
65 years and over: 3.95% (male 101,701; female 105,248) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.42% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.67 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.51 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project the largest water development scheme in the world is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
International agreements party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male/female
Total population: 1.06 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 28.99 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.65 years
Male: 73.53 years
Female: 77.88 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.64 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 76.2%
Male: 87.9%
Female: 63% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Libya - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Conventional short form: Libya
Local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma
Local short form: none

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory governed by the populace through local councils; in fact a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyat singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya Al 'Aziziyah Al Fatih Al Jabal al Akhdar Al Jufrah Al Khums Al Kufrah An Nuqat al Khams Ash Shati' Awbari Az Zawiyah Banghazi Darnah Ghadamis Gharyan Misratah Murzuq Sabha Sawfajjin Surt Tarabulus Tarhunah Tubruq Yafran Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969 amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
Head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Premier) Mubarak al-SHAMEKH (since 2 March 2000)
Cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress
Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 March 2000 (next to be held NA)
Election results: Mubarak al-SHAMEKH elected premier; percent of General People's Congress vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Libya does not have an embassy in the US
From the us: the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag descriptionflag of Libya: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Libya - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. In this statist society import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors which account for about 20% of GDP have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals iron steel and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. Higher oil prices in 1999 and 2000 led to an increase in export revenues which improved macroeconomic balances and helped to stimulate the economy. Following the suspension of UN sanctions in 1999 Libya has been trying to increase its attractiveness to foreign investors and several foreign companies have visited in search of contracts.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.5% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7%
Industry: 47%
Services: 46% (1997 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley olives dates citrus vegetables peanuts soybeans; cattle

Industries: petroleum food processing textiles handicrafts cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 1.5 million (2000 est.)
By occupation services and government: 54%
By occupation industry: 29%
By occupation agriculture: 17% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $6.85 billion
Expenditures: $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 18.5% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.9 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: crude oil refined petroleum products
Partners: Italy 33% Germany 24% Spain 10% France 5% Turkey 4% Tunisia 4% (1999)

Imports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery transport equipment food manufactured goods
Partners: Italy 24% Germany 12% Tunisia 9% UK 7% France 6% South Korea 5% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: Libya currently has two rates for foreign trade; one for government operations and foreign companies and one for Libyan individuals (0.45 dinars per US dollar in December 1998)

Libya - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 18.9 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 17.577 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Libya - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
General assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
Domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
International: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ly

Internet users: 7,500 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Libya - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.3 billion (FY99/00)
Percent of gdp: 3.9% (FY99/00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Libya - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 136 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 58
With paved runways over 3047 m: 23
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 22
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 78
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 4
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 14
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 40
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 58
Over 3047 m: 23
2438 to 3047 m: 6
15-24 to 2437 m: 22
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 78
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 14
914 to 1523 m: 40
Under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1947 km

Note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a 1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but there has been little progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion originally set for mid-1994; Libya signed contracts with two private companies - Bahne of Egypt and Jez Sistemas Ferroviarios of Spain - in 1998 for the supply of crossings and pointwork (1001)


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 399,725 GRT/654,843 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 4 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Libya - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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