Statistical information Liechtenstein 2001Liechtenstein

Map of Liechtenstein | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Liechtenstein in the World

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Liechtenstein - Introduction 2001
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Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I it was closely tied to Austria but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. However shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering.


Liechtenstein - Geography 2001
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Location: Central Europe between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N 9 32 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 160 km²
Land: 160 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington DC

Land boundaries
Total: 76 km
Border countries: (2) Austria 35 km; , Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental; cold cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm cloudy humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
Extremes highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential arable land
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 24%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 16%
Forests and woodland: 35%
Other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: along with Uzbekistan one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation


Liechtenstein - People 2001
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Population: 32,528 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 0.98% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Liechtensteiner
Adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: Alemannic 87.5% Italian Turkish and other 12.5%

Languages: German (official) Alemannic dialect

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 7.4% unknown 7.7% other 4.9% (1996)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.41% (male 2,992; female 2,996)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 11,455; female 11,511)
65 years and over: 10.99% (male 1,439; female 2,135) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.98% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.53 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.98 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: NA
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.01 male/female
Under 15 years: 1 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.99 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.95 years
Male: 75.32 years
Female: 82.6 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 10 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100% (1981 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Liechtenstein - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
Conventional short form: Liechtenstein
Local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
Local short form: Liechtenstein

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden singular - gemeinde); Balzers Eschen Gamprin Mauren Planken Ruggell Schaan Schellenberg Triesen Triesenberg Vaduz

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire

National holiday: Assumption Day 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)
Head of government: Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February 1997)
Cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the monarch
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch

Legislative branch
Elections: last held on 9-11 February 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
Election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; seats by party - FBP 13, VU 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Dr. Ernst WALCH]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK Karin JENNY Rene HASLER]

International organization participation: CE EBRD ECE EFTA IAEA ICRM IFRCS Intelsat Interpol IOC ITU OPCW OSCE UN UNCTAD UNIDO UPU WCL WHO (observer) WIPO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Liechtenstein's Ambassador to the US Claudia FRITSCHE is dually accredited to the UN in New York
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein

Flag descriptionflag of Liechtenstein: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Liechtenstein - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous highly industrialized free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% - and easy incorporation rules have induced 73,700 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture products: wheat barley corn potatoes; livestock dairy products

Industries: electronics metal manufacturing textiles ceramics pharmaceuticals food products precision instruments tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day
By occupation industry trade and building: 45%
By occupation services: 53%
By occupation agriculture fishing forestry and horticulture: 2% (1997 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (February 1999)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $424.2 million
Expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.5% (1997 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.47 billion (1996)
Commodities: small specialty machinery dental products stamps hardware pottery
Partners: EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)

Imports: $917.3 million (1996)
Commodities: machinery metal goods textiles foodstuffs motor vehicles
Partners: EU countries Switzerland (1996)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $0 (1996)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.6303 (January 2001) 1.6888 (2000) 1.5022 (1999) 1.4498 (1998) 1.4513 (1997) 1.2360 (1996)


Liechtenstein - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production
By source fossil fuel: NA%
By source hydro: NA%
By source nuclear: NA%
By source other: NA%

Electricity consumption: NA kWh

Electricity exports: NA kWh

Electricity imports: NA kWh

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Liechtenstein - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
General assessment: automatic telephone system
Domestic: NA
International: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .li

Internet users: NA

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Liechtenstein - Military 2001
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Liechtenstein - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: none

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways
Total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
Standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Roadways

Waterways: none

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Liechtenstein - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1600 km² of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Volotea Air


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