Statistical information Madagascar 2001Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Madagascar in the World
Madagascar in the World


Madagascar - Introduction 2001
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997 in the second presidential race Didier RATSIRAKA the leader during the 1970s and 1980s was returned to the presidency.

Madagascar - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Africa island in the Indian Ocean east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S 47 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 587,040 km²
Land: 581,540 km²
Water: 5,500 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast temperate inland arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain high plateau and mountains in center

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite chromite coal bauxite salt quartz tar sands semiprecious stones mica fish hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 41%
Forests and woodland: 40%
Other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Madagascar - People 2001
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Population: 15,982,563 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 70% (1994 est.)

Noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
Adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo) Cotiers (mixed African Malayo-Indonesian and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka Tsimihety Antaisaka Sakalava) French Indian Creole Comoran

Languages: French (official) Malagasy (official)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52% Christian 41% Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.02% (male 3,607,803; female 3,587,532)
15-64 years: 51.77% (male 4,093,720; female 4,180,430)
65 years and over: 3.21% (male 239,839; female 273,239) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.66 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.42 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 83.58 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.35 years
Male: 53.08 years
Female: 57.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 11,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 870 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73% (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Madagascar - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form: Madagascar
Local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Local short form: Madagascar
Former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo Antsiranana Fianarantsoa Mahajanga Toamasina Toliara

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA November 2001); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly
Election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%

Legislative branch
Elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
Election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle

Political parties and leaders: Action Truth Development and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Zina ANDRIANARIVELO-RAZAFY
In the us chancery: 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-5,525, 5,526
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Shirley E. BARNES
From the us embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
From the us mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
From the us telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57
From the us fax: [261] (20) 22-345-39

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Madagascar - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition underfunded health and education facilities a roughly 3% annual population growth rate and severe loss of forest cover accompanied by erosion. Agriculture including fishing and forestry is the mainstay of the economy accounting for 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations a decline in world coffee prices and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms outside financial aid and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth. For 2001 growth should again be about 5%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 30%
Industry: 14%
Services: 56% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee vanilla sugarcane cloves cocoa rice cassava (tapioca) beans bananas peanuts; livestock products

Industries: meat processing soap breweries tanneries sugar textiles glassware cement automobile assembly plant paper petroleum tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (1999)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 70% (1994 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.9%
Highest 10: 36.7% (1993)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $553 million
Expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 10% (1999 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $538 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: coffee vanilla shellfish sugar; cotton cloth chromite petroleum products
Partners: France 41% US 19% Germany 13% UK 8% Japan 6% (1999)

Imports: $693 million (f.o.b. 1998)
Commodities: intermediate manufactures capital goods petroleum consumer goods food
Partners: France 34% Hong Kong 6% China 6% Japan 5% Singapore 4% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,656 (November 2000) 6,284 (1999) 5,441 (1998) 5,091 (1997) 4,061 (1996)

Madagascar - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 810 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 37.04%
By source hydro: 62.96%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 753.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Madagascar - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 4,000 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: system is above average for the region
Domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links
International: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mg

Internet users: 8,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Madagascar - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $29 million (FY94)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Madagascar - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 130 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 29
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 19
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 101
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 56
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 43 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 29
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 19
Under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 101
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 56
Under 914 m: 43 (2000 est.)



Total: 883 km
Narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)


Note: of local importance only

Merchant marine
Total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,819 GRT/34,173 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Madagascar - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: claims Bassas da India Europa Island Glorioso Islands Juan de Nova Island and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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