Statistical information Malaysia 2001Malaysia

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Malaysia in the World
Malaysia in the World


Malaysia - Introduction 2001
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Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore both of which formed West Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore separated from the union in 1965.

Malaysia - Geography 2001
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Location: Southeastern Asia peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N 112 30 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 329,750 km²
Land: 328,550 km²
Water: 1,200 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries
Total: 2,669 km
Border countries: (3) Brunei 381 km; , Indonesia 1,782 km; , Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin petroleum timber copper iron ore natural gas bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 12%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 68%
Other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,941 km² (1998 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding landslides

Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

Malaysia - People 2001
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Population: 22,229,040 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.96% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Noun: Malaysian
Adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58% Chinese 27% Indian 8% others 7% (2000)

Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official) English Chinese dialects (Cantonese Mandarin Hokkien Hakka Hainan Foochow) Tamil Telugu Malayalam Panjabi Thai; note - in addition in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken the largest of which are Iban and Kadazan

Religions: Islam Buddhism Daoism Hinduism Christianity Sikhism; note - in addition Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.5% (male 3,943,324; female 3,724,634)
15-64 years: 61.35% (male 6,828,670; female 6,808,623)
65 years and over: 4.15% (male 404,042; female 519,747) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.96% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.75 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate
Note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male/female
Total population: 1.01 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20.31 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.11 years
Male: 68.48 years
Female: 73.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.24 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.42% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 49,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 1900 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 83.5%
Male: 89.1%
Female: 78.1% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Malaysia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Malaysia
Former: Federation of Malaysia

Government type
Note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957; Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed 9 July 1963 (Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965); nominally headed by the paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak, where governors are appointed by the Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of the federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., the right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - holds 28 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions
Note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is located within the federal territory of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable; there may be a new federal territory named Putrajaya

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day/Malaysia Day 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1999); Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
Head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 8 January 1999)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler
Elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister
Election results: Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected paramount ruler; Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah elected deputy paramount ruler

Legislative branch
Elections: House of Representatives - last held 29 November 1999 (next must be held by 20 December 2004)
Election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NF 56%, other 44%; seats by party - NF 148, PAS 27, DAP 10, NJP 5, PBS 3

Judicial branch: Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Alternative Coalition or Barisan Alternatif-BA (includes the following parties: Party Islam Se-Malaysia or PAS [FADZIL Mohamad Noor] National Justice Party or NJP [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail] Democratic Action Party or DAP [LIM Kit Siang] and Malaysian People's Party or PRM [SYED HUSIN]); National Front or NF (ruling coalition dominated by the United Malays National Organization or UMNO [MAHATHIR bin Mohammad] includes the following parties: Malaysian Indian Congress or MIC [S. Samy VELLU] Malaysian Chinese Association or MCA [LING Liong Sik] Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or Gerakan [LIM Keng Yaik] Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud] Parti Angkatan Keadilan Rakyat Bersatu or Akar [PANDIKAR Amin Mulia] Parti Bangsa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Leo MOGGIE] Sarawak United People's Party or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam] Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [CHONG Kah Kiat] Sabah Progressive Party or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee] People's Progressive Party or PPP [M. KAYVEAS] Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP] Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Amar James WONG] Parti Demokratik Sabah or PDS [leader NA] and United Pasok Momogun Kadazan Organization or UPKO (state level only) [Bernard DOMPOK]); Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Bersekutu [HARRIS Salleh]; State Reform Party of Sarawak or STAR [PATAU Rubis]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador GHAZZALI Sheikh Abdul Khalid
In the us chancery: 2,401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 328-2,700
In the us fax: [1] (202) 483-7,661
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE
From the us embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50,400 Kuala Lumpur
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10,035, 50,700 Kuala Lumpur; American Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96,535-8,152
From the us telephone: [60] (3) 2,168-5,000
From the us fax: [60] (3) 2,168-4,961

Flag descriptionflag of Malaysia: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Malaysia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: GDP grew at 8.6% in 2000 mainly on the strength of double-digit export growth and continued government fiscal stimulus. As an oil exporter Malaysia also benefited from higher petroleum prices. Higher export revenues allowed the country to register a current account surplus but foreign exchange reserves have been declining - from a peak of $34.5 billion in April 2000 to $29.7 billion by December - as foreign investors pulled money out of the country. Despite this development Kuala Lumpur is unlikely to abandon its currency peg soon. An economic slowdown in key Western markets especially the United States and lower world demand for electronics products will slow GDP growth to 3%-6% in 2001 according to private forecasters. Over the longer term Malaysia's failure to make substantial progress on key reforms of the corporate and financial sectors clouds prospects for sustained growth and the return of critical foreign investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8.6% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 44%
Services: 42% (2000)

Agriculture products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber palm oil cocoa rice; Sabah - subsistence crops rubber timber coconuts rice; Sarawak - rubber pepper; timber

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing light manufacturing industry electronics tin mining and smelting logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing petroleum production and refining logging

Industrial production growth rate: 12.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.6 million (2000 est.)
By occupation local trade and tourism: 28%
By occupation manufacturing: 27%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fisheries: 16%
By occupation services: 10%
By occupation government: 10%
By occupation construction: 9% (2000 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.4%
Highest 10: 20.4% (1997 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $16.4 billion
Expenditures: $17.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $43 billion (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.7% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $97.9 billion (2000 est.)
Commodities: electronic equipment petroleum and liquefied natural gas chemicals palm oil wood and wood products rubber textiles
Partners: US 21% Singapore 18% Japan 13% Hong Kong 5% Netherlands 4% Taiwan 4% Thailand 3% (2000 est.)

Imports: $82.6 billion (2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment chemicals food fuel and lubricants
Partners: Japan 21% US 17% Singapore 14% Taiwan 6% South Korea 5% Thailand 4% China 4% (2000 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $41.8 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: ringgits per US dollar - 3.8000 (January 2001) 3.8000 (2000) 3.8000 (1999) 3.9244 (1998) 2.8133 (1997) 2.5159 (1996)

Malaysia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 59.044 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 91.61%
By source hydro: 8.39%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 54.872 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 50 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 11 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Malaysia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.698 million (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern system; international service excellent
Domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations
International: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2001)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .my

Internet users: 1.5 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Malaysia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.69 billion (FY00 est.)
Percent of gdp: 2.03% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Malaysia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 115 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 33
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 11
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6
With paved runways under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 82
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 73 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 33
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 11
914 to 1523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 82
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 73 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1307 km; natural gas 379 km

Total: 1,801 km
Narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (148 km electrified) (2000)


Note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km, Sarawak 2,518 km

Merchant marine
Total: 362 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,103,657 GRT/7,574,999 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 62, cargo 110, chemical tanker 35, container 60, liquefied gas 20, livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 58, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 6 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Malaysia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China Philippines Taiwan Vietnam and possibly Brunei; Philippines have not fully revoked claim to Sabah State; Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island) disputed with Singapore; Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Indonesia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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