Statistical information Mali 2001Mali

Map of Mali | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Mali in the World
Mali in the World

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Mali - Introduction 2001
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Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997 President KONARE has continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term.


Mali - Geography 2001
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Location: Western Africa southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N 4 00 W

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 1.24 million km²
Land: 1.22 million km²
Water: 20,000 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 7,243 km
Border countries: (7) Algeria 1,376 km; , Burkina Faso 1,000 km; , Guinea 858 km; , Cote d'Ivoire 532 km; , Mauritania 2,237 km; , Niger 821 km; , Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy humid and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south rugged hills in northeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
Extremes highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources
Note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 25%
Forests and woodland: 6%
Other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Geography
Note: landlocked


Mali - People 2001
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Population: 11,008,518 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 2.97% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Nationality
Noun: Malian
Adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara Malinke Soninke) Peul 17% Voltaic 12% Songhai 6% Tuareg and Moor 10% other 5%

Languages: French (official) Bambara 80% numerous African languages

Religions: Muslim 90% indigenous beliefs 9% Christian 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,612,215; female 2,583,370)
15-64 years: 49.73% (male 2,610,142; female 2,864,127)
65 years and over: 3.07% (male 158,486; female 180,178) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.97% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 48.79 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.71 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.36 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male/female
Total population: 0.96 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 121.44 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 47.02 years
Male: 45.84 years
Female: 48.24 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 2.03% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 100,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 9,900 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 31%
Male: 39.4%
Female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mali - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali
Conventional short form: Mali
Local long form: Republique de Mali
Local short form: Mali
Former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions singular - region); Gao Kayes Kidal Koulikoro Mopti Segou Sikasso Tombouctou

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mande SIDIBE (since September 2000)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 95.9%, Mamadou DIABY 4.1%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE chairman]; Movement for the Independence Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE chairman; Tiebile DRAME secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]

International organization participation: ACCT ACP AfDB CCC ECA ECOWAS FAO FZ G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO (subscriber) ITU MIPONUH MONUC NAM OAU OIC OPCW UN UN Security Council (temporary) UNAMSIL UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WADB WAEMU WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
In the us chancery: 2,130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-2,249, 939-8,950
In the us fax: [1] (202) 332-6,603
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER
From the us embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
From the us mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
From the us telephone: [223] 22 54 70
From the us fax: [223] 22 37 12

Flag descriptionflag of Mali: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) yellow and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mali - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton its main export. In 1997 the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow diversify and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. Growth should remain around 5% in 2001-02 and inflation should stay less than 2%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 46%
Industry: 21%
Services: 33% (1998)

Agriculture products: cotton millet rice corn vegetables peanuts; cattle sheep goats

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Labor force: NA
By occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.8%
Highest 10: 40.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $730 million
Expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.8% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $480 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: cotton 50% gold livestock (1999 est.)
Partners: Italy 18% Thailand 15% Germany 7% Portugal 4% (1999)

Imports: $575 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment construction materials petroleum foodstuffs textiles
Partners: Cote d'Ivoire 19% France 19% Senegal 4% Benelux 3% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3 billion (1999)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001) 711.98 (2000) 615.70 (1999) 589.95 (1998) 583.67 (1997) 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999 the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro


Mali - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 445 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 44.94%
By source hydro: 55.06%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 413.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mali - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2,842 (1997)

Telephone system
General assessment: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
Domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ml

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mali - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $49 million (FY96)
Percent of gdp: 2% (FY96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mali - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 27 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 20
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 20
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways
Total: 729 km (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
Narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge

Roadways

Waterways: 1815 km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mali - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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