Statistical information Mexico 2001Mexico

Map of Mexico | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mexico in the World
Mexico in the World

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Mexico - Introduction 2001
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Background: The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages underemployment for a large segment of the population inequitable income distribution and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states.


Mexico - Geography 2001
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Location: Middle America bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala and the US

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N 102 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total: 1,972,550 km²
Land: 1,923,040 km²
Water: 49,510 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 4,538 km
Border countries: (3) Belize 250 km; , Guatemala 962 km; , US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
Extremes highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources: petroleum silver copper gold lead zinc natural gas timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 39%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 61,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south and hurricanes on the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts

Geography
Note: strategic location on southern border of US


Mexico - People 2001
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Population: 101,879,171 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 27% (1998 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Mexican
Adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60% Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30% white 9% other 1%

Languages: Spanish various Mayan Nahuatl and other regional indigenous languages

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89% Protestant 6% other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 33.32% (male 17,312,220; female 16,635,438)
15-64 years: 62.28% (male 30,888,015; female 32,558,359)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 1,997,219; female 2,487,920) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.77 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.02 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.77 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25.36 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.76 years
Male: 68.73 years
Female: 74.93 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.62 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 150,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 4,700 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 89.6%
Male: 91.8%
Female: 87.4% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mexico - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: United Mexican States
Conventional short form: Mexico
Local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Local short form: Mexico

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes Baja California Baja California Sur Campeche Chiapas Chihuahua Coahuila de Zaragoza Colima Distrito Federal* Durango Guanajuato Guerrero Hidalgo Jalisco Mexico Michoacan de Ocampo Morelos Nayarit Nuevo Leon Oaxaca Puebla Queretaro de Arteaga Quintana Roo San Luis Potosi Sinaloa Sonora Tabasco Tamaulipas Tlaxcala Veracruz-Llave Yucatan Zacatecas

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2006)
Election results: Vicente FOX Quesada elected president; percent of vote - Vicente FOX Quesada (PAN) 42.52%, Francisco LABASTIDA Ochoa (PRI) 36.1%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 16.64%, other 4.74%

Legislative branch
Elections: Senate - last held 2 July 2000 for all of the seats (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRI 59, PAN 45, PRD 17, PVEM 5, PT 1, PCD 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRI 211, PAN 208, PRD 50, PVEM 16, PT 7, PCD 3, PSN 3, PAS 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)

Political parties and leaders: Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Dulce Maria SAURI Riancho]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge GONZALEZ Torres]; National Action Party or PAN [Luis Felipe BRAVO Mena]; Party of the Democratic Center or PCD [Manuel CAMACHO Solis]; Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD [Amalia GARCIA Medina]; Party of the Nationalist Society or PSN [Gustavo RIOJAIS Santana]; Social Alliance Party or PAS [Jose Antonio CALDERON Cardoso]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]

International organization participation: APEC BCIE BIS Caricom (observer) CCC CDB CE (observer) EBRD ECLAC FAO G-3 G-6 G-11 G-15 G-19 G-24 IADB IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IEA (observer) IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM (observer) ISO ITU LAES LAIA NAM (observer) NEA OAS OECD OPANAL OPCW PCA RG UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNITAR UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Jose BREMER Martino
In the us chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,006
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
In the us fax: [1] (202) 728-1698
In the us consulates general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
In the us consulates: Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), McAllen (Texas), Midland (Texas), Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffery DAVIDOW
From the us embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 6,500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 3,087, Laredo, TX 78,044-3,087
From the us telephone: [52] (5) 209-9,100
From the us fax: [52] (5) 208-3,373, 511-9,980
From the us consulates general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
From the us consulates: Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo, Nogales

Flag descriptionflag of Mexico: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) white and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mexico - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 2000. The ZEDILLO administration privatized and expanded competition in seaports railroads telecommunications electricity natural gas distribution and airports. A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996-2000. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth in 2000 accompanied by increased employment and higher real wages. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. Income distribution is very unequal with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994. Mexico completed free trade agreements with the EU Israel El Salvador Honduras and Guatemala in 2000 and is pursuing additional trade agreements with countries in Latin America and Asia to lessen its dependence on the US.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.1% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5%
Industry: 27%
Services: 68% (2000)

Agriculture products: corn wheat soybeans rice beans cotton coffee fruit tomatoes; beef poultry dairy products; wood products

Industries: food and beverages tobacco chemicals iron and steel petroleum mining textiles clothing motor vehicles consumer durables tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 39.8 million (2000)
By occupation agriculture: 20%
By occupation industry: 24%
By occupation services: 56% (1998)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: urban - 2.2% (2000); plus considerable underemployment

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 27% (1998 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.8%
Highest 10: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $125 billion
Expenditures: $130 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 9% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $168 billion (f.o.b. 2000) includes in-bond industries (assembly plant operations)
Commodities: manufactured goods oil and oil products silver fruits vegetables coffee cotton
Partners: US 88.6% Canada 2% Spain 0.9% Germany 0.9% Japan 0.6% UK 0.6% Netherlands Antilles 0.5% Switzerland 0.3% Venezuela 0.3% Chile 0.3% (2000 est.)

Imports: $176 billion (f.o.b. 2000) includes in-bond industries (assembly plant operations)
Commodities: metal-working machines steel mill products agricultural machinery electrical equipment car parts for assembly repair parts for motor vehicles aircraft and aircraft parts
Partners: US 73.6% Japan 3.7% Germany 3.3% Canada 2.3% South Korea 2% China 1.6% Taiwan 1.2% Italy 1% Brazil 1% (2000 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $162 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Mexican pesos per US dollar - 9.7701 (January 2001) 9.4556 (2000) 9.5604 (1999) 9.1360 (1998) 7.9185 (1997) 7.5994 (1996)


Mexico - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 182.492 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 74.12%
By source hydro: 17.75%
By source nuclear: 5.21%
By source other: 2.92% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 170.754 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 11 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 1.047 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mexico - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.02 million (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: low telephone density with about 11 main lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; the opening to competition in January 1997 has brightened prospects for development
Domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, and mobile cellular service
International: satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mx

Internet users: 2.5 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mexico - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4 billion (FY99)
Percent of gdp: 1% (FY99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mexico - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1848 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 238
With paved runways over 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 28
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 90
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 82
With paved runways under 914 m: 27 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 1,610
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 65
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 470
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1,073 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 238
Over 3047 m: 11
2438 to 3047 m: 28
15-24 to 2437 m: 90
914 to 1523 m: 82
Under 914 m: 27 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 1,610
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 65
914 to 1523 m: 470
Under 914 m: 1,073 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1400 km

Railways
Total: 31,048 km
Standard gauge: 30,958 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1998 est.)

Roadways

Waterways
Note: navigable rivers and coastal canals

Merchant marine
Total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 590,657 GRT/920,456 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 28, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Mexico - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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