Statistical information Mongolia 2001Mongolia

Map of Mongolia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mongolia in the World
Mongolia in the World


Mongolia - Introduction 2001
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Background: Long a province of China Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996 the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. However the former communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional reforms and made implementation difficult. In 2000 the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats in Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.

Mongolia - Geography 2001
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Location: Northern Asia between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N 105 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 1.565 million km²
Land: 1.565 million km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 8,161.9 km
Border countries: (2) China 4,676.9 km; , Russia 3,485 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains grassy steppe mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
Extremes highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil coal copper molybdenum tungsten phosphates tin nickel zinc wolfram fluorspar gold silver iron phosphate
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5.7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 81%
Forests and woodland: 11.4%
Other: 1.9% (2000 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: dust and snow storms grassland and forest fires drought and 'zud' which is a combination of drought followed by harsh winter conditions

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Mongolia - People 2001
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Population: 2,654,999 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.47% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 40% (2000 est.)

Noun: Mongolian
Adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85% Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7% Tungusic 4.6% other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90% Turkic Russian (1999)

Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96% Muslim (primarily in the southwest) Shamanism and Christian 4% (1998)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 32.99% (male 445,252; female 430,758)
15-64 years: 63.13% (male 837,771; female 838,384)
65 years and over: 3.88% (male 44,436; female 58,398) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.47% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 21.8 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation overgrazing the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male/female
15-64 years: 1 male/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male/female
Total population: 1 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 53.5 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.26 years
Male: 62.14 years
Female: 66.5 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 97.5% (2000)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mongolia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Mongolia
Local long form: none
Local short form: Mongol Uls
Former: Outer Mongolia

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions
Note: there may be a new province named Gobi-Sumber; further, there may now be 21 provinces and 1 capital city instead of 18 provinces and 3 municipalities

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian Chinese Turkish and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president
Elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
Election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - NA%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)

Political parties and leaders
Note: the MPRP is the ruling party


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
In the us chancery: 2,833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 333-7,117
In the us fax: [1] (202) 298-9,227
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John DINGER
From the us embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar
From the us mailing address: United States Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96,521-0002
From the us telephone: [976] (11) 329,095
From the us fax: [976] (11) 320,776

Flag descriptionflag of Mongolia: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side) blue and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ('soyombo' - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire sun moon earth water and the yin-yang symbol)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mongolia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper coal molybdenum tin tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance at its height one-third of GDP disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession which was prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics easing price controls liberalizing domestic and international trade and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company a leading cashmere company and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999 the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government elected in July 2000 is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -1% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 36%
Industry: 22%
Services: 42% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley potatoes forage crops; sheep goats cattle camels horses

Industries: construction materials mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million (1999)
By occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 40% (2000 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.9%
Highest 10: 24.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $262 million
Expenditures: $328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 7.6% (1999)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $454.3 million (f.o.b. 1999)
Commodities: copper livestock animal products cashmere wool hides fluorspar other nonferrous metals
Partners: China 60% US 20% Russia 9% Japan 2% (2000 est.)

Imports: $510.7 million (c.i.f. 1999)
Commodities: machinery and equipment fuels food products industrial consumer goods chemicals building materials sugar tea
Partners: Russia 33% China 21% Japan 12% South Korea 10% US 4% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $760 million (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1097.00 (December 2000) 1076.67 (2000) 1072.37 (1999) 840.83 (1998) 789.99 (1997) 548.40 (1996)

Mongolia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.671 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 2.767 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 80 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 363 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mongolia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 110,000 (2001)

Telephone system
General assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons
Domestic: NA
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .mn

Internet users: between 10,000 and 15,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mongolia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $25.5 million (FY01)
Percent of gdp: 2.3% (FY01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mongolia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 34 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 8
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 26
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 8
2438 to 3047 m: 7
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 26
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)



Broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)


Waterways: 400 km (1999)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Mongolia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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