Statistical information Russia 2001Russia

Map of Russia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Russia in the World
Russia in the World

Qatar Airways

Russia - Introduction 2001
top of page

Background: The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social political and economic controls of the communist period.

Russia - Geography 2001
top of page

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe) bordering the Arctic Ocean between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N 100 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 17,075,200 km²
Land: 16,995,800 km²
Water: 79,400 km²
Comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total: 19,961 km
Border countries: (14) Azerbaijan 284 km; , Belarus 959 km; , China (southeast) 3,605 km; , China (south) 40 km; , Estonia 294 km; , Finland 1,313 km; , Georgia 723 km; , Kazakhstan 6,846 km; , North Korea 19 km; , Latvia 217 km; , Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km; , Mongolia 3,485 km; , Norway 167 km; , Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km; , Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
Extremes highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources
Note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 4%
Forests and woodland: 46%
Other: 42% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula

Note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

Russia - People 2001
top of page

Population: 145,470,197 (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: -0.35% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)

Noun: Russian
Adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5% Tatar 3.8% Ukrainian 3% Chuvash 1.2% Bashkir 0.9% Byelorussian 0.8% Moldavian 0.7% other 8.1%

Languages: Russian other

Religions: Russian Orthodox Muslim other

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 17.41% (male 12,915,026; female 12,405,341)
15-64 years: 69.78% (male 49,183,000; female 52,320,962)
65 years and over: 12.81% (male 5,941,944; female 12,703,924) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.35% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.35 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.85 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.98 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from heavy industry emissions of coal-fired electric plants and transportation in major cities; industrial municipal and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; ground water contamination from toxic waste
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male/female
65 years and over: 0.47 male/female
Total population: 0.88 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20.05 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.34 years
Male: 62.12 years
Female: 72.83 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.18% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 130,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 850 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 100%
Female: 97% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Russia - Government 2001
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Russian Federation
Conventional short form: Russia
Local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Local short form: Rossiya
Former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Government type: federation

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions
Note: the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetiya were formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between Chechnya and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Russia Day 12 June (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president since 31 December 1999, president since 7 May 2000)
Head of government: Premier Mikhail Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 May 2000); First Deputy Premier Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 18 May 2000), Deputy Premiers Aleksey Vasilyevich GORDEYEV (since 20 May 2000), Viktor Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 May 1999), Ilya Iosifovich KLEBANOV (since 31 May 1999), Valentina Ivanovna MATVIYENKO (since 22 September 1998)
Cabinet: Ministries of the Government or 'Government' composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and other agency heads; all are appointed by the president
Note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 March 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
Election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - PUTIN 52.9%, Gennadiy Aadreyevich ZYUGANOV 29.2%, Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY 5.8%

Legislative branch
Elections: State Duma - last held 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2003)
Election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats - KPRF 24.29%, Unity 23.32%, OVR 13.33%, Union of Right Forces 8.52%, LDPR 5.98%, Yabloko 5.93%; seats by party - KPRF 113, Unity 72, OVR 67, Union of Rightist Forces 29, LDPR 17, Yabloko 21, other 16, independents 106, repeat election required 8, vacant 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court of Arbitration; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders
Note: some 150 political parties, blocs, and movements registered with the Justice Ministry as of the 19 December 1998 deadline to be eligible to participate in the 19 December 1999 Duma elections; of these, 36 political organizations actually qualified to run slates of candidates on the Duma party list ballot, 6 parties cleared the 5% threshold to win a proportional share of the 225 party seats in the Duma, 9 other organizations hold seats in the Duma: Bloc of Nikolayev and Academician Fedorov, Congress of Russian Communities, Movement in Support of the Army, Our Home Is Russia, Party of Pensioners, Power to the People, Russian All-People's Union, Russian Socialist Party, and Spiritual Heritage; primary political blocs include pro-market democrats - (Yabloko Bloc and Union of Right Forces), anti-market and/or ultranationalist (Communist Party of the Russian Federation and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia)


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy Viktorovich USHAKOV
In the us chancery: 2,650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 298-5,700, 5,701, 5,704, 5,708
In the us fax: [1] (202) 298-5,735
In the us consulates general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador James F. COLLINS
From the us embassy: Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, 121,099 Moscow
From the us mailing address: APO AE 9,721
From the us telephone: [7] (095) 728-5,000
From the us fax: [7] (095) 728-5,203
From the us consulates general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag descriptionflag of Russia: three equal horizontal bands of white (top) blue and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Russia - Economy 2001
top of page

Economy overview: A decade after the implosion of the Soviet Union in 1991 Russia is still struggling to establish a modern market economy and achieve strong economic growth. In contrast to its trading partners in Central Europe - which were able to overcome the initial production declines that accompanied the launch of market reforms within three to five years - Russia saw its economy contract for five years as the executive and legislature dithered over the implementation of many of the basic foundations of a market economy. Russia achieved a slight recovery in 1997 but the government's stubborn budget deficits and the country's poor business climate made it vulnerable when the global financial crisis swept through in 1998. The crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble a debt default by the government and a sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population. The economy rebounded in 1999 and 2000 buoyed by the competitive boost from the weak ruble and a surging trade surplus fueled by rising world oil prices. This recovery along with a renewed government effort in 2000 to advance lagging structural reforms have raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its second decade of transition. Yet serious problems persist. Russia remains heavily dependent on exports of commodities particularly oil natural gas metals and timber which account for over 80% of exports leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Russia's agricultural sector remains beset by uncertainty over land ownership rights which has discouraged needed investment and restructuring. Another threat is negative demographic trends fueled by low birth rates and a deteriorating health situation - including an alarming rise in AIDS cases - that have contributed to a nearly 2% drop in the population since 1992. Russia's industrial base is increasingly dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve sustainable economic growth. Other problems include widespread corruption capital flight and brain drain.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.3% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7%
Industry: 34%
Services: 59% (1999 est.)

Agriculture products: grain sugar beets sunflower seed vegetables fruits; beef milk

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal oil gas chemicals and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery tractors and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables textiles foodstuffs handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 66 million (1997)
By occupation agriculture: 15%
By occupation industry: 30%
By occupation services: 55% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10.5% (2000 est.) plus considerable underemployment

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.7%
Highest 10: 38.7% (1998)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $40 billion
Expenditures: $33.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 20.6% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $105.1 billion (2000 est.)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products natural gas wood and wood products metals chemicals and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Partners: US 8.8% Germany 8.5% Ukraine 6.5% Belarus 5.1% Italy 5% Netherlands 4.8% (1999)

Imports: $44.2 billion (2000 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment consumer goods medicines meat grain sugar semifinished metal products
Partners: Germany 13.8% Belarus 10.7% Ukraine 8.3% US 7.9% Kazakhstan 4.6% Italy 3.8% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $163 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: the post-1 January 1998 ruble is equal to 1,000 of the pre-1 January 1998 rubles

Russia - Energy 2001
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 798.065 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 66.31%
By source hydro: 19.79%
By source nuclear: 13.9%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 728.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 20 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 6 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Russia - Communication 2001
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 2.5 million (October 2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: the telephone system has undergone significant changes in the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; however, a large demand for main line service remains unsatisfied
Domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density
International: Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .ru

Internet users: 9.2 million (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Russia - Military 2001
top of page

Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Russia - Transportation 2001
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2,743 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 471
With paved runways over 3047 m: 56
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 178
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 76
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 69
With paved runways under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 2,272
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 28
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 118
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 204
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 324
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1,598 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 471
Over 3047 m: 56
2438 to 3047 m: 178
15-24 to 2437 m: 76
914 to 1523 m: 69
Under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2,272
Over 3047 m: 28
2438 to 3047 m: 118
15-24 to 2437 m: 204
914 to 1523 m: 324
Under 914 m: 1,598 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural gas 140,000 km (June 1993 est.)

Total: 149,000 km
Note: 86,000 km are in common carrier service; 63,000 km serve specific industries and are not available for common carrier use; 40,000 km of the railway in common carrier use are electrified
Broad gauge: 149,000 km 1.520-m gauge (1998)


Note: routes with navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet-95,900 km; routes with night navigational aids-60,400 km; man-made navigable routes-16,900 km (Jan 1994)

Merchant marine
Total: 878 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,314,485 GRT/5,344,958 DWT
Ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 20, cargo 543, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 21, combination ore/oil 7, container 31, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 35, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 164, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 17, short-sea passenger 7
Note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Reunion 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Russia - Transnational issues 2001
top of page

Disputes international: dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary with China remains to be settled despite 1997 boundary agreement; islands of Etorofu Kunashiri and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945 now administered by Russia claimed by Japan; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan Iran Kazakhstan Russia and Turkmenistan; Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed or ratified by Russia as of February 2001; draft treaty delimiting the boundary with Latvia has not been signed; 1997 border agreement with Lithuania not yet ratified; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Austrian Airlines

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it