Statistical information Saudi Arabia 2001Saudi%20Arabia

Map of Saudi Arabia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Saudi Arabia in the World
Saudi Arabia in the World


Saudi Arabia - Introduction 2001
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Background: In 1902 Abdul al-Aziz Ibn SAUD captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian peninsula. In the 1930s the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population aquifer depletion and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.

Saudi Arabia - Geography 2001
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Location: Middle East bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N 45 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Total: 1,960,582 km²
Land: 1,960,582 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total: 4,415 km
Border countries: (7) Iraq 814 km; , Jordan 728 km; , Kuwait 222 km; , Oman 676 km; , Qatar 60 km; , UAE 457 km; , Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 NM
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: harsh dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited sandy desert

Extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
Extremes highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources: petroleum natural gas iron ore gold copper
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 56%
Forests and woodland: 1%
Other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

Saudi Arabia - People 2001
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Note: includes 5,360,526 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 3.27% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Saudi
Adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90% Afro-Asian 10%

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslim 100%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.52% (male 4,932,465; female 4,743,908)
15-64 years: 54.8% (male 7,290,840; female 5,179,393)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 334,981; female 275,505) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.34 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.32 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
International agreements party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male/female
15-64 years: 1.41 male/female
65 years and over: 1.22 male/female
Total population: 1.23 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 51.25 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.09 years
Male: 66.4 years
Female: 69.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 62.8%
Male: 71.5%
Female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Saudi Arabia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
Local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqat singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah Al Jawf Al Madinah Al Qasim Ar Riyad Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province) 'Asir Ha'il Jizan Makkah Najran Tabuk

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 September 1932 (Unification of the Kingdom)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom 23 September (1932)

Constitution: governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was introduced in 1993

Legal system: based on Islamic law several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch and includes many royal family members
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: a consultative council (90 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
In the us chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-3,800
In the us consulates general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Wyche FOWLER, Jr.
From the us embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Riyadh, Unit 61,307, APO AE 9,803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94,309, Riyadh 11,693
From the us telephone: [966] (1) 488-3,800
From the us fax: [966] (1) 488-7,360
From the us consulates general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag descriptionflag of Saudi%20Arabia: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Saudi Arabia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: This is an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world (26% of the proved reserves) ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues 40% of GDP and 90% of export earnings. About 35% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 5 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy for example in the oil and service sectors. Saudi Arabia was a key player in the successful efforts of OPEC and other oil producing countries to raise the price of oil in 1999-2000 to its highest level since the Gulf war by reducing production. Riyadh expects to have a moderate budget deficit in 2001 in part because of increased spending for education and other social programs. The government in 1999 announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies which follows the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. The government is expected to continue calling for private sector growth to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil and increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population. Shortages of water and rapid population growth will constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6%
Industry: 47%
Services: 47% (1998 est.)

Agriculture products: wheat barley tomatoes melons dates citrus; mutton chickens eggs milk

Industries: crude oil production petroleum refining basic petrochemicals cement construction fertilizer plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Labor force
Note: 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)
By occupation agriculture: 12%
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation services: 63% (1999 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $66 billion
Expenditures: $66 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 0.5% (2000)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $81.2 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%
Partners: Japan 18% US 18% France 4% South Korea Singapore India (1999)

Imports: $30.1 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment foodstuffs chemicals motor vehicles textiles
Partners: US 25% Japan 10% Germany 7% Italy 5% France UK (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $26.3 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals per US dollar - 3.7450 (fixed rate since June 1986)

Saudi Arabia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 120 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 111.6 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Saudi Arabia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular
Note: in 1998, the government contracted for the installation of 575,000 additional Group Speciale Mobile (GSM) cellular telephone lines over 15 months to raise the total number of subscribers to more than one million; Riyadh planned to further expand the GSM system in 1999 by adding an additional one million lines (1998)

Telephone system
General assessment: modern system
Domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems
International: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .sa

Internet users: 400,000 (2001)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Saudi Arabia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $18.3 billion (FY00)
Percent of gdp: 13% (FY00)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Saudi Arabia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 206 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 70
With paved runways over 3047 m: 31
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 23
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 136
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 77
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 39
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 15 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 70
Over 3047 m: 31
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 23
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 136
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 77
914 to 1523 m: 39
Under 914 m: 15 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 5 (2000 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1600 km)

Total: 1,390 km
Standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track) (1992)


Waterways: none

Merchant marine
Total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,154,619 GRT/1,533,732 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 11, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea passenger 8 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Saudi Arabia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: a final border resolution was agreed to with Qatar in March of 2001; location and status of boundary with UAE is not final de facto boundary reflects a 1974 agreement; a June 2000 treaty delimited the boundary with Yemen but final demarcation requires adjustments based on tribal considerations

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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