Statistical information Somalia 2001Somalia

Map of Somalia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Somalia in the World
Somalia in the World

Somalia - Introduction 2001
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Background: A SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil factional fighting and anarchy followed for nine years. In May of 1991 northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland which now includes the administrative regions of Awdal Woqooyi Galbeed Togdheer Sanaag and Sool. Although not recognized by any government this entity has maintained a stable existence aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British Russian and American military assistance programs. The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring self-declared Republic of Puntland which has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate representative government. Beginning in 1993 a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions but when the UN withdrew in 1995 having suffered significant casualties order still had not been restored. A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in October 2000 in Arta Djibouti which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not recognize Somaliland or Puntland as independent republics but so far has been unable to reunite them with the unstable regions in the south; numerous warlords and factions are still fighting for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions.

Somalia - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Africa bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N 49 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 637,657 km²
Land: 627,337 km²
Water: 10,320 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,366 km
Border countries: (3) Djibouti 58 km; , Ethiopia 1,626 km; , Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon torrid in the north and hot in the south irregular rainfall hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore tin gypsum bauxite copper salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 69%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1800 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

Somalia - People 2001
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Note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 3.48% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Somali
Adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85% Bantu Arabs 30,000

Languages: Somali (official) Arabic Italian English

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 44.54% (male 1,670,320; female 1,665,329)
15-64 years: 52.69% (male 1,993,750; female 1,952,437)
65 years and over: 2.77% (male 91,511; female 115,426) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 47.23 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.35 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.96 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International agreements party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1 male/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male/female
Total population: 1.01 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 123.97 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 46.6 years
Male: 44.99 years
Female: 48.25 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.11 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: NA%
People living with hivaids: NA
Deaths: NA

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 24%
Male: 36%
Female: 14% (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Somalia - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Somalia
Former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA singular - gobolka); Awdal Bakool Banaadir Bari Bay Galguduud Gedo Hiiraan Jubbada Dhexe Jubbada Hoose Mudug Nugaal Sanaag Shabeellaha Dhexe Shabeellaha Hoose Sool Togdheer Woqooyi Galbeed

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic 1 July (1960)

Note: the Transitional National Government formed in October 2000 has a mandate to create a new constitution and hold elections within three years

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan (since 26 August 2000); note - Interim President ABDIKASSIM was chosen for a three-year term by a 245-member National Assembly serving as a transitional government; the present political situation is still unstable, particularly in the south, with interclan fighting and random banditry
Head of government: ALI Khalifa Galaydh, appointed by the president 8 October 2000
Cabinet: appointed by the prime minister and sworn in on 20 October 2000
Election results: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan was elected president of an interim government at the Djibouti-sponsored Arta Peace Conference on 26 August 2000 by a broad representation of Somali clans that comprised a transitional National Assembly.

Legislative branch
Note: fledgling parliament; a transitional 245-member National Assembly began to meet on 13 August 2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti and is now based in Mogadishu

Judicial branch: following the breakdown of national government most regions have reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences

Political parties and leaders: none


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)
From the us: the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box 30,137 Unit 64,100 Nairobi; APO AE 9,831; telephone: [254] (2) 334,141; FAX [254] (2) 340,838

Flag descriptionflag of Somalia: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Somalia - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries Somalia has few resources. Moreover much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood make up a large portion of the population. Livestock and bananas are the principal exports; sugar sorghum corn fish and qat are products for the domestic market. The small industrial sector based on the processing of agricultural products accounts for 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. Moreover ongoing civil disturbances in Mogadishu and outlying areas have interfered with any substantial economic advance and with international aid arrangements. Due to the civil strife economic data is susceptible to an exceptionally wide margin of error.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 60%
Industry: 10% (largely shut down in 2000)
Services: 30% (2000 est.)

Agriculture products: cattle sheep goats; bananas sorghum corn sugarcane mangoes sesame seeds beans; fish

Industries: a few small industries including sugar refining textiles petroleum refining (mostly shut down) wireless communication

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers) (1993 est.)
By occupation agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism): 71%
By occupation industry and services: 29%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $NA
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: NA

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: over 100% (businesses print their own money) (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $186 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: livestock bananas hides fish (1999)
Partners: Saudi Arabia 53% Yemen 19% UAE 14% Italy 5% Pakistan 2% (1999)

Imports: $314 million (f.o.b. 1999 est.)
Commodities: manufactures petroleum products foodstuffs construction materials (1995)
Partners: Djibouti 24% Kenya 14% Brazil 13% Saudi Arabia 10% India 9% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1999 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates
Note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling

Somalia - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 260 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 100%
By source hydro: 0%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 241.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Somalia - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system
General assessment: the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems
Domestic: recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers
International: international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .so

Internet users: 200 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Somalia - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA
Percent of gdp: NA%

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Somalia - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 62 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 5
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 57
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 29
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 5
Over 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 57
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
914 to 1523 m: 29
Under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Railways: 0 km


Waterways: none

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Somalia - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Iberostar Hotels

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