Statistical information Sri Lanka 2001Sri%20Lanka

Map of Sri Lanka | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Sri Lanka in the World

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Sri Lanka - Introduction 2001
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Background: Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century the island was ceded to the British in 1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an ethnic war that continues to fester.


Sri Lanka - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Asia island in the Indian Ocean south of India

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N 81 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Area
Total: 65,610 km²
Land: 64,740 km²
Water: 870 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1340 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 NM
Continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources: limestone graphite mineral sands gems phosphates clay hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 14%
Permanent crops: 15%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 32%
Other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,500 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Geography
Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes


Sri Lanka - People 2001
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Population
Note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999, approximately 66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West
Growth rate: 0.87% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 22% (1997 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Sri Lankan
Adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74% Tamil 18% Moor 7% Burgher Malay and Vedda 1%

Languages
Note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population

Religions: Buddhist 70% Hindu 15% Christian 8% Muslim 7% (1999)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 25.99% (male 2,578,618; female 2,464,928)
15-64 years: 67.39% (male 6,369,881; female 6,708,852)
65 years and over: 6.62% (male 615,253; female 671,103) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.87% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.58 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.43 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.43 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male/female
Total population: 0.97 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 16.08 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.09 years
Male: 69.58 years
Female: 74.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids
Adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 7,500 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 490 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90.2%
Male: 93.4%
Female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Sri Lanka - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Conventional short form: Sri Lanka
Former: Serendib, Ceylon

Government type: republic

Capital: Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central North Central North Eastern North Western Sabaragamuwa Southern Uva Western; note - North Eastern province may have been divided in two - Northern and Eastern

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law Roman-Dutch Muslim Sinhalese and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ratnasiri WICKRAMANAYAKE (since 10 August 2000) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist
Head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ratnasiri WICKRAMANAYAKE (since 10 August 2000) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2005)
Election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (PA) 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (UNP) 42%, other 7%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 10 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2006)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PA 45.11%, UNP 40.22%, JVP 6%, NUA 2.29%, SU 1.48%, TULF 1.23%, other 3.67%; seats by party - PA 107, UNP 89, JVP 10, TULF 5, EPDP 4, NUA 4, TELO 3, ACTC 1, SU 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [Nalliah GURUPAUAN]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CLDC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party [Raja COLLURE]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [Srimani ATHULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRA]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Tilvan SILVA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [leader NA]; People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDDATHAN]; Sihala Urumaya or SU [leader NA]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM and Ferial ASHRAFF]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [leader NA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SUBRAMANIUM]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [R. SAMPATHAN]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Upcountry People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties represented in either parliament or provincial councils

International organization participation: AsDB C CCC CP ESCAP FAO G-24 G-77 IAEA IBRD ICAO ICC ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS IHO ILO IMF IMO Inmarsat Intelsat Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU NAM OAS (observer) OPCW PCA SAARC UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UNTAET UNU UPU WCL WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Warnasena RASAPUTRAM
In the us chancery: 2,148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,025 (through 4,028)
In the us fax: [1] (202) 232-7,181
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles
In the us consulates: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador E. Ashley WILLS
From the us embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
From the us telephone: [94] (1) 448,007
From the us fax: [94] (1) 437,345

Flag descriptionflag of Sri%20Lanka: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Sri Lanka - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: In 1977 Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing textiles and apparel food and beverages telecommunications and insurance and banking. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970) while textiles and garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an annual average rate of 5.5% throughout the 1990s until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-98 with growth of 6.4% and 4.7% - but slowed to 4.3% in 1999. Growth increased to 5.6% in 2000 with growth in tourism and exports leading the way. But a resurgence of civil war between the Sinhalese and the minority Tamils and a possible slowdown in tourism dampen prospects for 2001. For the next round of reforms the central bank of Sri Lanka recommends that Colombo expand market mechanisms in nonplantation agriculture dismantle the government's monopoly on wheat imports and promote more competition in the financial sector.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 21%
Industry: 19%
Services: 60% (1998)

Agriculture products: rice sugarcane grains pulses oilseed spices tea rubber coconuts; milk eggs hides beef

Industries: processing of rubber tea coconuts and other agricultural commodities; clothing cement petroleum refining textiles tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1999)

Labor force: 6.6 million (1998)
By occupation services: 45%
By occupation agriculture: 38%
By occupation industry: 17% (1998 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1999 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 22% (1997 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 1.8%
Highest 10: 39.7% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $3 billion
Expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 8.5% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $5.2 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: textiles and apparel tea diamonds coconut products petroleum products
Partners: US 39% UK 13% Middle East 8% Germany 5% Japan 4% (1999)

Imports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: machinery and equipment textiles petroleum foodstuffs
Partners: Japan 10% India 9% Hong Kong 8% Singapore 8% South Korea 6% (1999)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $9.9 billion (2000)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 83.506 (January 2001) 77.005 (2000) 70.635 (1999) 64.450 (1998) 58.995 (1997) 55.271 (1996)


Sri Lanka - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.026 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 29.9%
By source hydro: 70.1%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 5.604 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Sri Lanka - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 228,604 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; some hope for improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999)
Domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999)
International: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .lk

Internet users: 65,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Sri Lanka - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $719 million (FY98)
Percent of gdp: 4.2% (FY98)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Sri Lanka - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 12
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 12
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Railways
Total: 1,463 km
Broad gauge: 1,404 km 1.676-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (1996)

Roadways

Waterways: 430 km (navigable by shallow-draft craft)

Merchant marine
Total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 149,902 GRT/247,852 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 16, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals


Sri Lanka - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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