Statistical information Swaziland 2001Swaziland

Map of Swaziland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Swaziland - Introduction 2001
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Background: Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.

Swaziland - Geography 2001
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Location: Southern Africa between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S 31 30 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 17,363 km²
Land: 17,203 km²
Water: 160 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries
Total: 535 km
Border countries: (2) Mozambique 105 km; , South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Extremes lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
Extremes highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources: asbestos coal clay cassiterite hydropower forests small gold and diamond deposits quarry stone and talc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 11%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 62%
Forests and woodland: 7%
Other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

Swaziland - People 2001
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 1.83% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: NA%

Noun: Swazi
Adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups: African 97% European 3%

Languages: English (official government business conducted in English) siSwati (official)

Religions: Protestant 55% Muslim 10% Roman Catholic 5% indigenous beliefs 30%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.53% (male 250,327; female 252,479)
15-64 years: 51.88% (male 276,186; female 296,728)
65 years and over: 2.59% (male 11,687; female 16,936) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.83% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.12 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 21.84 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 0.99 male/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male/female
Total population: 0.95 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 109.19 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 38.62 years
Male: 37.86 years
Female: 39.4 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 25.25% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 130,000 (1999 est.)
Deaths: 7,100 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 76.7%
Male: 78%
Female: 75.6% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Swaziland - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
Conventional short form: Swaziland

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho Lubombo Manzini Shiselweni

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC) but so far none have been accepted

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age

Executive branch
Chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
Head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)
Cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch
Elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch
Elections: House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)
Election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders
Note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large public gatherings; the organizations listed are political associations


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA
In the us chancery: 3,400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 362-6,683
In the us fax: [1] (202) 244-8,059
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory L. JOHNSON
From the us embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
From the us telephone: [268] 404-6,441 through 404-6,445
From the us fax: [268] 404-5,959

Flag descriptionflag of Swaziland: three horizontal bands of blue (top) red (triple width) and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels all placed horizontally

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Swaziland - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: In this small landlocked economy subsistence agriculture occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years: diamond mines have shut down because of the depletion of easily accessible reserves; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978; and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink concentrate sugar and wood pulp are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa except for a short border with Mozambique Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives four-fifths of its imports and to which it sends two-thirds of its exports. Remittances from the Southern African Customs Union and Swazi workers in South African mines substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing soil depletion drought and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. Prospects for 2001 are strengthened by government millennium projects for a new convention center additional hotels an amusement park a new airport and stepped-up roadbuilding and factory construction plans.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 10%
Industry: 46%
Services: 44% (1998 est.)

Agriculture products: sugarcane cotton corn tobacco rice citrus pineapples sorghum peanuts; cattle goats sheep

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos) wood pulp sugar soft drink concentrates

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (FY95/96)

Labor force: NA
By occupation: private sector 70% public sector 30%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 22% (1995 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA%

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: NA%
Highest 10: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $400 million
Expenditures: $450 million, including capital expenditures of $115 million (FY96/97)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 6.4% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $881 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: soft drink concentrates sugar wood pulp cotton yarn refrigerators citrus and canned fruit
Partners: South Africa 65% EU 12% Mozambique 11% US 5% (1998)

Imports: $928 million (f.o.b. 2000)
Commodities: motor vehicles machinery transport equipment foodstuffs petroleum products chemicals
Partners: South Africa 84% EU 5% Japan 2% Singapore 2% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $281 million (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: emalangeni per US dollar - 7.7803 (January 2001) 6.9056 (2000) 6.1087 (1999) 5.4807 (1998) 4.6032 (1997) 4.2706 (1996); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African rand; emalangeni is the plural form of lilangeni

Swaziland - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 375 million kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 53.33%
By source hydro: 46.67%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 198 million kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 852 million kWh (1999)

Electricity imports
Note: supplied by South Africa (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Swaziland - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 30,000 (2000)

Telephone system
General assessment: not a modern system
Domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay
International: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .sz

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Swaziland - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $19.198 million (FY00/01)
Percent of gdp: 4.75% (FY00/01)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Swaziland - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 18 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 17
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 17
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



Total: 297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use
Narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge


Waterways: none

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Swaziland - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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