Statistical information Tanzania 2001Tanzania

Map of Tanzania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Tanzania in the World
Tanzania in the World


Tanzania - Introduction 2001
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Background: Shortly after independence Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995 which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

Tanzania - Geography 2001
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Location: Eastern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S 35 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 945,087 km²
Land: 886,037 km²
Water: 59,050 km²
Note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 3,402 km
Border countries: (7) Burundi 451 km; , Kenya 769 km; , Malawi 475 km; , Mozambique 756 km; , Rwanda 217 km; , Uganda 396 km; , Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1424 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north south

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources: hydropower tin phosphates iron ore coal diamonds gemstones gold natural gas nickel
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 40%
Forests and woodland: 38%
Other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1500 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

Note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

Tanzania - People 2001
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Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Growth rate: 2.61% (2001 est.)
Below poverty line: 51.1% (1991 est.)

Noun: Tanzanian
Adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups: mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes) other 1% (consisting of Asian European and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab native African mixed Arab and native African

Note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

Religions: mainland - Christian 45% Muslim 35% indigenous beliefs 20%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 44.76% (male 8,152,438; female 8,063,520)
15-64 years: 52.35% (male 9,387,737; female 9,581,518)
65 years and over: 2.89% (male 473,498; female 573,363) (2001 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.61% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 39.65 births/1000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.95 deaths/1000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.64 migrant(s)/1000 population (2001 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male/female
Total population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 79.41 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 51.98 years
Male: 51.04 years
Female: 52.95 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Adult prevalence rate: 8.09% (1999 est.)
People living with hivaids: 1.3 million (1999 est.)
Deaths: 140,000 (1999 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
Total population: 67.8%
Male: 79.4%
Female: 56.8% (1995 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Tanzania - Government 2001
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Country name
Conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
Conventional short form: Tanzania
Former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Government type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha Dar es Salaam Dodoma Iringa Kagera Kigoma Kilimanjaro Lindi Mara Mbeya Morogoro Mtwara Mwanza Pemba North Pemba South Pwani Rukwa Ruvuma Shinyanga Singida Tabora Tanga Zanzibar Central/South Zanzibar North Zanzibar Urban/West

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar) 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000
Cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%

Legislative branch
Elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)
Election results: National Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16

Judicial branch: Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD secretary-general]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA leader]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [Kassim MAGUTU secretary-general]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO leader]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG'ANYI
In the us chancery: 2,139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 939-6,125
In the us fax: [1] (202) 797-7,408
From the us chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Wanda NESBITT
From the us embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 9,123, Dar es Salaam
From the us telephone: [255] (22) 666,010 through 666,015
From the us fax: [255] (22) 666,701

Flag descriptionflag of Tanzania: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Tanzania - Economy 2001
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Economy overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture which accounts for half of GDP provides 85% of exports and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions however limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank the International Monetary Fund and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2000 featured a pick up in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals led by gold. Natural gas exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should allow Tanzania to achieve real GDP growth of 6% in 2001 and in 2002.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.2% (2000 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 49%
Industry: 17%
Services: 34% (1998 est.)

Agriculture products: coffee sisal tea cotton pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums) cashew nuts tobacco cloves (Zanzibar) corn wheat cassava (tapioca) bananas fruits vegetables; cattle sheep goats

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar beer cigarettes sisal twine) diamond and gold mining oil refining shoes cement textiles wood products fertilizer salt

Industrial production growth rate: 8.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 13.495 million
By occupation agriculture: 80%
By occupation industry and commerce: 20% (2000 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 51.1% (1991 est.)

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10: 2.9%
Highest 10: 30.2% (1993)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.21 billion
Expenditures: $1.36 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 6% (2000 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $937 million (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: coffee manufactured goods cotton cashew nuts minerals tobacco sisal (1996)
Partners: India 20% UK 10% Germany 8% Japan 8% Netherlands 8% Belgium 4% (1998)

Imports: $1.57 billion (f.o.b. 2000 est.)
Commodities: consumer goods machinery and transportation equipment industrial raw materials crude oil
Partners: South Africa 8% Japan 8% UK 8% Kenya 7% India 6% US 5% (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $6.8 billion (2000 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 803.34 (December 2000) 800.41 (2000) 744.76 (1999) 664.67 (1998) 612.12 (1997) 579.98 (1996)

Tanzania - Energy 2001
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.248 billion kWh (1999)
By source fossil fuel: 22.24%
By source hydro: 77.76%
By source nuclear: 0%
By source other: 0% (1999)

Electricity consumption: 2.134 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity imports: 43 million kWh (1999)

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Tanzania - Communication 2001
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular: 30,000 (1999)

Telephone system
General assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction
Domestic: trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
International: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code: .tz

Internet users: 25,000 (2000)

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Tanzania - Military 2001
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $21 million (FY98/99)
Percent of gdp: 0.2% (FY98/99)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Tanzania - Transportation 2001
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 126 (2000 est.)
With paved runways total: 11
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)
With unpaved runways total: 115
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 17
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 63
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 11
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways
Total: 115
15-24 to 2437 m: 17
914 to 1523 m: 63
Under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)


Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Total: 3,569 km (1995)
Narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
Note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways


Note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on those lakes

Merchant marine
Total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Ports and terminals

Tanzania - Transnational issues 2001
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Disputes international: dispute with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); a resurvey of the latitudinal boundary with Uganda in 2000 revealed a 300-meter discrepancy that both sides are currently adjudicating

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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